Thursday, March 19, 2020
Favoritism in the Media Introduction We live in an integrated society where various elements color our view and understanding of what goes on around us. Social sciences provide us with tools for better understanding and relating in contemporary society. A good understanding of the foundation from which the social issues spring leads to better perception as well as judgment when dealing with the contemporary issues in real life.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Favoritism in the Media specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the social issues that affects and influences almost every aspect of our lives is the media. The influence that the media wields in our lives is very significant. Gentz and Kramer articulate that the media provides the backdrop against which we make sense of any new conditions and information that we encounter in a world that is increasingly becoming globalized (32). Ideally, the media is expected to be fair, unbi ased; and without prejudices and should deliver whatever news and stories that are of value both to the public and the ones concerned. However, these ideals are not always lived up to and there are numerous instances where the media has been accused of favoritism in reporting events. This paper shall argue that the media is indeed guilty of favoritism in its news reporting and coverage of events. To buttress this assertion, this paper shall review how the media covers disasters in different regions as well as media representation of political affairs. Favoritism in Media Reports Perhaps one of the incidents in which the media has shown outright bias is in the report of terror events. In post 9/11 America, terror and terrorist attacks have gained prominence on a previously unprecedented scale. Incidents of terror plots or terror acts have therefore become very newsworthy and a lot of report efforts have been dedicated to the same. However, Moeller notes that the terror events that oc cur within American soil are given immense coverage regardless of their scale while those that occur in other nations are given little coverage and indeed covered in a sporadic manner (174). Considering the fact that some of this terror attacks are of unimaginable proportions and affect thousands or even hundreds of thousands of people, this treatment by the media is unjustified. To counter this claim, it might be argued that terror incidents that do not directly affect American citizens are not of much importance to them. While this may be true, media houses which claim to be international should not discriminate since they are supposedly addressing a global audience.Advertising Looking for research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The commercial incentive for media houses to concentrate on some incidents and not others is very obvious. Considering the fact that the biggest share of viewers is in America, it makes sense for the media to try and obtain the view-ship of this group. Van Belle reveals that commercial imperatives factor in on the decision of whether a disaster is newsworthy (50). For example, in the coverage of Hurricane Katrina, Moeller reveals that cable television networks CNN and Fox, both of which had invested heavily in the coverage of the disaster by sending scores of staffers both experienced significant rises in viewers (183). CNN recorded a 336% increase in its viewership while MBNBC recorded a 379 increase. While it might be argued that the media has a right to try and ensure that they remain profitable, this should only be secondary to sound and unbiased media coverage. Media favoritism is not limited to disasters but also extends to other faucets of life such as politics. Barker and Lawrence reveal that claims of media favoritism in American politics have been around for decades (4). This favoritism is especially evident between the media and p articular candidates. Barker and Lawrence accuse the media of telling us what to think especially in forums whereby journalists were welcome to express their opinions or critical observation on political events. The media reinforces attitudes and behaviors and as such, a reporterÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and attitude will rub on the general population thus coloring their view of some events (Gentz and Kramer 36). This kind of bias is therefore likely to sway the opinion of the public and in effect, influence how they vote. While the media is supposed to be an unbiased and objective reporter of information to the public, sometimes the media has vested interests in the manner in which they report. The media is at times used to propagate propaganda or indeed manipulate public opinion. Barker and Lawrence theorized that when reporting on incidences, the media is more inclined to major on the information that is more dramatic and catchy (7). As such, a presidential candidate who is considered a s a rebel might be given unmerited coverage just for the sake of sensationalism. In addition to this, talk radio has also been known to influence the outcome of elections by attacking certain candidates or praising others. Defending the Media While the media has been accused of favoritism when presenting information, sometimes there are incidents which are both newsworthy and the media just chooses the more significant one. Moeller demonstrates that in some instances, some disasters just have the bad luck to occur at a moment when a more telegenic disaster was already capturing global attention (173).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Favoritism in the Media specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The media professionals in charge of choosing which disaster is presented to the public therefore lack the means to give both disasters equal attention. As such, the media is not guilty of favoring one over the other but r ather the timing results in one of the tragedys playing second fiddle to the other. Moeller also demonstrates that it is difficult for the media to keep the public interested in long-running humanitarian crises such as the war in Darfur and Congo or the HIV/AIDS epidemic inasmuch as these events have and continue to claim millions of lives (180). For this reason, the media opts to cover more sensational disasters such as the tsunami which happen instantaneously and capture the imagination people. In some instances, the technical and structural feasibility of news flow helps or impedes the media reporting efforts. As such, the media is neutral and it is the location factor that dictates whether there will be media coverage of events in that area. Van Belle theorizes that countries with well-developed communications infrastructure therefore gain more coverage than those that do not have any communications infrastructure or have badly developed ones (52). It is therefore unreasonable t o expect the media powerhouses to report incidents on the same level in the differing locations. If incidents of the same magnitude and newsworthiness occur in two respective regions; one with good communication lines and the other region possessing no communication infrastructure, the media will mostly likely lean on the place with good infrastructure. As it would be, America has a superior communication infrastructure especially when compared to developing nations. For this reason, the media reports for American incidents can only be expected to be significantly more frequent and detailed that those from the developing nations. It is logical for the media to report on those issues that will be deemed as relevant and of some interest by the viewers. The media should therefore not be blamed for focusing on the disasters that have some direct bearing to Americans such as the hurricane Katrina incident or the fate of US Marines in Iraq. Should the media decide to ignore this conventio nal wisdom and report on issues that are alien to Americans and to which they cannot relate, the media will end up being irrelevant and people will end up switching to other news providing avenues to sate their informational needs.Advertising Looking for research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion The media tends to report social policy issues in a highly critical manner and fails to give the issue the attention they deserve. Instead, the media is more inclined to report on more sensational issues such as insecurity, disasters and scandals. This assertion holds true considering the reporting space that issues that are controversial in nature are awarded compared to the rather mundane issues of social policy. However, even when reporting on these sensational issues, the media does not do so in a balanced manner. As far as disasters are concerned, defining what is an important disaster or crises is at best a very hard task since there are no set guidelines as to what makes up such a disaster. Despite this being the case, this paper has demonstrated that in most cases, the media is guilty of covering the disasters that it deems most likely to be watched by their audience. This has some negative effect since international relief efforts by the government and non-govern mental organization require justification before they can commence. Van Belle documents that the media is arguably the most valuable information source used to justify relief efforts to distant countries (50). As such, reports on disaster by the media correlate with the amount of aid that a disaster accrues. The reality is that high death tolls or even unthinkable violence do not guarantee media attention. This reality has resulted in some disasters where international aid and goodwill which can only be brought by expanded media coverage not getting the coverage they need. This has resulted in continued suffering and misery by the victims. In some cases, the suffering is unnecessary since it would have been alleviated if the public had been privy of what was going on. As such, the favoritism employed by the media in these instances is detrimental for the well being of the victims of the disasters. Despite the many negative aspects of the media that this paper has dwelt on, there are many positive attributes that the media advances for the betterment of the society. It is through the advocacy of the media that the public get to know of people in need of our help. In times of disaster, the media appeals to the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s altruism as it solicits for funds to aid those who had been adversely affected by the disaster. The media has also been known to publicize government corruption therefore leading to greater accountability and transparency by those in power. Conclusion This paper has argued that the media exhibits favoritism in its reporting. To reinforce this claim, this paper has discussed some instances where the media reports in a biased manner. It has been noted that incidents are not given the same amount of coverage in that journalists do at times express their own biased opinions. It has also been documented that the actions of the media are not always driven by objectivity or public interest but the need for increased view-ship which translates to p rofits. This paper has also indicated that sometimes the favoritism in reporting is necessary so as to ensure that the viewers are given information that they deem as necessary. However, the media should purpose to report in a fair and unbiased manner so as to ensure its credibility and continued relevance to society. Barker, David and Lawrence, Adam. Media favoritism in presidential primaries: reviving the direct effects model. 11 Mar, 2004. Web. Gentz, Natascha and Kramer, Stefan. Globalization, Cultural Identities, and Media Representations. SUNY Press, 2006. Print. Moeller, Susan D. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Regarding the pain of othersÃ¢â¬â¢. Media, bias and the coverage of international disastersÃ¢â¬ . 2006. Journal of International Affairs. Vol. 59, no. 2, 2006. Van Belle, Douglas. Ã¢â¬Å"A New York Times and Network TV news coverage of foreign disasters: the significance of the insignificant variablesÃ¢â¬ . Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. vol. 77, No. 1, 2000.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
How To Make Money Blogging Make Money Blogging! or even better Make Tons Of Money Blogging! Whoo Whee! IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t that what weÃ¢â¬â¢re here for, to be honest? It sounds kind of crass, I suppose, to put a dollar amount on the Ã¢â¬Å"art of bloggingÃ¢â¬ , but the truth is that bloggers invest an incredible amount of money in their blogs. Hosting, templates, social media, ad buys. Time. Oh, the time. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s agree that the second part of Ã¢â¬Å"content marketingÃ¢â¬ is marketing, implying that we are looking for a market, implying that we want to make some money. How can you make money blogging? LetÃ¢â¬â¢s consider a two-pronged approach, making money off of your blog directly, and how your blog can help lead you to make money off of otherÃ¢â¬â¢s blogs. What Are The Best Ways To Make Money Blogging? via @JulieNeidlinger Writing For Your Blog Writing for your own blog, that thing you do every day, can be thought of as part of the process of making money. Just the act of creating content, if you choose to think about it correctly, has a financial reward. 1. Build your own credibility. Your blog is building your credibility (unless you write rants with nary a thought toward grammar and writing quality). Each post you write builds on the previous posts, and is telling your reader Ã¢â¬Å"this blogger is credibleÃ¢â¬ . Why does that matter, when it comes to making money off of your blog? Brand and name recognition. Just as the propinquity effect- the state of being physically or psychologically close to another and therefore, forming a relationship- is important in determining your social media ROI, the same can be said of your blog. Your reader gets used to hearing your Ã¢â¬Å"voiceÃ¢â¬ on the page. He gets used to your opinions, your style, your approach. He knows what you advocate. And, the more he likes your content, the more he returns. The more he returns, the more familiarity he has with your brand. Publish consistent content to keep readers coming back, getting the chance to convert.As you blog regularly, you are creating brand recognition. While your bank account isnÃ¢â¬â¢t directly growing each time a reader hops in to read, you are Ã¢â¬Å"softeningÃ¢â¬ your readers into potential customers in the future. In this way, that brand recognition has a long-term financial payoff. And that is exactly how content marketing works despite it's greatest misconception (just take a look at what Rand Fishkin mentions in this fantastic video): Your expertise. What you are an expert at has value. You know something that others want to know also. They want your help. Part of being a great content marketer is being willing to help freely, giving away some of that expertise. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re going to talk about how you can turn the rest of that expertise into money in the next section, but the expertise itself plays into how you make money in a few ways: If youÃ¢â¬â¢re selling other products, your expertise can reassure customers that buying from you means they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be left to fend for themselves if they need help. Your expertise makes your other products seem legitimate, because they were created by an expert. For example, I am a freelance writer. My writing on my own blog, the blog, and elsewhere has brought me new clients who like what they read. They have determined that I have a particular kind of expertise. Some services, like writing, need evidence of expertise. Clients need evidence that I can write, and my own blogging is that evidence. Blogging establishes expertise. Expertise establishes trust. Trust enables confidence to purchase.Blogging establishes expertise. Expertise establishes trust. Trust enables confidence to purchase. No one buys from someone who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to know what they are talking about. In this way, expertise is like brand recognition: It is a foundation that may not obviously impact your bank account every time you hit Ã¢â¬Å"publishÃ¢â¬ on a blog post, but must be there for any future attempt to make money off of your blog. 2. SellÃ your own products. Every blogger has at least two products to sell: Their expertise, and the content created out of that expertise. However, there are additional products you can create using that same content as well as the brand youÃ¢â¬â¢ve established. Ideally, youÃ¢â¬â¢d focus on products that would create a passive income, meaning that money comes in regularly with little work on your part after the initial effort. Digital products that people can purchase and download or view are the best example of this. Physical products, on the other hand, require you to create, package, and ship. They are active income, requiring work on every sale. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at a few products you can sell on your blog, including both passive and active income. Services, teaching, and consulting. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve established yourself as an expert in a particular niche or industry, you have valuable expertise. And, as we just mentioned, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s something with actual monetary value. Whether through webinars, speaking at conferences, one-on-one consulting, or even a class on a site like Udemy, your expertise has monetary value. As a content marketer, you know the value of giving away your expertise for free, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt to consider that you ought to hold some back to make available to those who are willing to pay for it. Copyblogger, for example, gives away a lot of great content. But they also have a paid element in their Authority program for those in their audience who want to be serious and pony up some money to learn. Valuable expertise has monetary value. #bloggingIn an age where so much is free on the Internet, not everyone is pleased to be asked to pay for the cream of the crop. However, this adds value to your expertise, oddly, in that it sends the message that people are willing to pay you for what you know. Asking people to pay you for your expertise is part of teaching them how to treat you and value the knowledge youÃ¢â¬â¢re giving them. It is great to give away things for free. It is perfectly acceptable to also hold some behind a paywall. Books, e-books, and more. Are you a food blogger? Then you have a cookbook to sell. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all right there, on your blog. Package your posts up into a variety of cookbooks (Ã¢â¬Å"Most popular recipesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Breakfast dishesÃ¢â¬ ). Just because itÃ¢â¬â¢s available for free online doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean your fans wonÃ¢â¬â¢t jump at the chance to get a convenient hard copy of whatever it is you are an expert at. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to forget that you can actually sell e-books, because most content marketers use them as a giveaway incentive to get email addresses. But, depending upon how long the e-book is, and the quality, it is another avenue for making money from your blog. You can make money #blogging by repurposing your content.Not everyone will get a lucrative publishing contract, though, but that shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep you from getting e-books made up from your repurposed content. There are many apps out there that will help you easily make an e-book from the content you already have. If youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to offer an actual physical book, there are no shortage of options. Blurb, for example, recently introduced a trade book publishing program that will help you create a book and e-book, getting it listed on Amazon and in the Ingram catalog. That opens the door to anyone who wants your book, even your local bookseller. Things you can sell: Books and e-books: Cull from your top posts or high-traffic categories and create real long-form content. Helpful guides, how-tos, or a collection of essays- all make great reading. Posters: Print high-quality versions of infographics or visual graphics your readers have enjoyed. Schwag: Stickers, notebooks, and other blog-branded items that tie into your core niche. Subscriptions: Whether exclusive content, downloads, products, or graphic designs, you can offer paid subscriptions to your readers. 3. Sell ads on your site. Selling ad space on your blog isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as lucrative for every blogger. If you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t getting seriously high traffic (around 10,000 a month), you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t see the windfall that bigger bloggers lay claim to. In talking about his decision to sell ads on his blog, popular blogger Michael Hyatt lays out five very good steps to selling ads: Survey your readers and find out basic demographic information. This will be useful in knowing what kinds of ads will work best for your audience. Create a page dedicated to advertising. Let people know your terms for allowing their ads on your site. Create an advertising kit to provide to those interested in advertising. Sign up with an advertising service (preferably not Google AdSense) that is a good fit for your blog, both in how they run their service and in the ad output (e.g. graphic size). Pitch the advertising opportunity to those who might be interested. You have, at this point, demographics and traffic numbers. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the makings of a great sales pitch. Your approach may be different, but remember that in order to make money off of your blog with ads, you need a lot of traffic. Here's how to sell valuable ad space on your #blog.Writing For OtherÃ¢â¬â¢s Blogs If the extent of your writing for other blogs is in the format of guest blogging, you probably arenÃ¢â¬â¢t getting paid. Guest posting, generally, is about finding a new audience and building your own reputation as an expert (which, as noted, does eventually help you make money). However, in a world hungry for content, good writers are in high demand. I know this from firsthand experience, receiving many requests from potential clients. You can make money, as a blogger, writing for other blogs. Before you can make money writing for others' blogs, you have to: Have been writing on your own blog. You need experience both in writing and what it takes to run a blog. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll gain an appreciation for deadlines and word counts if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done it yourself first. Establish a tangible reputation, with writing samples, of what you can do. This is so crucial. Why do I have so many requests from clients? Because theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen my writing elsewhere and liked it. Do the work. Write the guest posts. It will turn around eventually. Be willing (though it may not always be required) to write for free initially to establish a relationship with the blog owner. Be upfront that you are interested in paid blogging and not just guest posts. Make yourself available, but not passively. You have to pursue writing leads, unless youÃ¢â¬â¢ve built enough brand reputation where they come to you. Get in the practice of working hard and hitting deadlines. Nothing kills a paid blogging gig like missing deadlines and turning in shoddy work. Be prepared to write outside of your comfort zone, at least until you establish regular clients. Learn to research and write on things you donÃ¢â¬â¢t always know a lot about. If you intend to make a living writing for other blogs, here are some resources you ought to check out first: 12 Signs YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Underselling Your Freelance Writing Services Is Ghost Blogging Unethical? How To Make A Living Blogging How To Avoid Writer Burnout When ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Your Day Job 5 Steps To Make Your Freelance Clients Love Your Writing You Have To Flip The Switch All the expertise and brand recognition in the world doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t lead to bank deposits unless you flip the switch. What I mean is that you have to, at some point, make the move to asking for money. For startups or businesses where a sellable product came first, and the blog is the means to bring in people, itÃ¢â¬â¢s different. But for bloggers whose content came first, where the blog is the means to bring in money (eventually), you need to flip the switch. At some point, you have to make the move to ask for money from #blogging.You have to sell a product, or that expertise. You have to run the risk of upsetting some in your audience who truly want things for free (unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re making a go of it, for reals, off of ads). You have to be willing to do the work of writing for yourself Ã¢â¬Å"for freeÃ¢â¬ and on other blogs for free until you get enough requests that you begin weeding them out by establishing a freelance blogging career. When is that moment? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. You will know. Creating endless free downloads that bring in droves of traffic and are downloaded in high numbers? Start creating something available only with a price tag. CanÃ¢â¬â¢t handle the deluge of writing requests? End all free writing and put a price on it and see where the chips fall. It can feel like a gamble, but if youÃ¢â¬â¢re overwhelmed and exhausted and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t seeing any income, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time. The danger to content marketing is to get so caught up in doing it so well and so free that you forget youÃ¢â¬â¢re marketing. If your blog is a hobby, fine. But if you want to make money off of it, you must eventually move away from everything being free. Don't forget to get your free infographic checklist to help you make money from blogging.