Monday, September 30, 2019

Does violence on televison lead to violence in real life? Essay

The debate on television violence has been on going for many years now and has produced a wide and varied set of views and research results. Many well established psychologists have attempted, through various types of experiments and observations, to either support or negate a link between violence on television and the violent episodes in â€Å"real† life. These sets of data have thrown up some interesting views and personal conclusions regarding the subject of television violence, and we will show the varying views and conclusions that some of these psychologists have reached; and by using a respected and well known system we will try to show the views of a small section of our community. Previous research into the link between violence and television Over the years numerous psychologists have produced thousands of experiments and or research to support or negate the link between violence and television. In 1987 a psychologist named Cumberbatch produced data on the actual amounts of violence found to be in British television programmes. He concluded that 30% of the programmes contained some form of violence, with an overall frequency of 1.14 violent acts per programme and 1.68 violent acts per hour. Each act of violence lasted an average 25 seconds leading to violence occupying just over 1% of total television airtime. His research showed that in 26% of violent acts death occurred, but in 61% no injuries were shown and the victim was portrayed as being in pain or stunned. In 83% of cases, no blood was shown as a result of a violent act, and considerable blood and gore occurred in only 0.2% of cases. Cumberbatch also revealed that most perpetrators of violent acts were more likely to be portrayed as â€Å"baddies† rather than â€Å"goodies†, and violence occurred twice as frequently in law breaking than in law-upholding contexts. His research, although neither for or against violence on television, gives us an idea of the amount of violence on television we are exposed to. Howitt and Cumberbatch in 1974 analysed 300 studies of television violence and it’s direct effect on children’s behaviour, they played down the link between television violence and the children’s behaviour. A further study into the relationships between the media and violence carried out by Eron 1987and Phillips 1986 found a different conclusion. They concluded that a positive correlation between the amount of aggression viewed at 8 and later aggression at 30 could be seen. George Gerbner (1989) researched television and its influences on human behaviour and said: † Television influences human behaviour because there are â€Å"routes† or mechanisms whereby the content of television can have an effect on what we do, and how we act. Thus, part of televisions influence comes about because of how we learn (by observation and imitation), because of how we respond to certain kinds of story material (arousal/desensitisation), and because of the structure of our inhibitions and the way television provides the kind of stimulation necessary to release them (disinhibition). I called these behavioural mechanisms, because for the most part the influence was shown on some activity† (p128 The Psychology of Television) Aletha Huston (university of Kansas 1989) studied the effects of television violence on children’s behaviour and stated: † Children who watch violent television programmes, even ‘just funny’ cartoons, were more likely to hit out at their playmates, argue, disobey class rules, leave tasks unfinished, and were less willing to wait for things than those who watched the non violent programmes.†(p 142 The Psychology of Television) We can see from the varying studies, different results and opinions of these psychologists just how hard it can be to support or negate a link between violence on television and in real life. How the questionnaires were prepared in class In a classroom environment we produced a questionnaire on peoples opinions relating to the link between television violence and real life. The class split into small groups of three or four and discussed possible questions to add to the questionnaire, trying to have a balance of pro television and anti television questions. The individual group questions were discussed and eight questions picked to make up the actual questionnaire, these questions consisted of four pro television and four anti television, the questions were set out so an anti television was followed by a pro television question. The obvious reason for the split into pro and anti television is to try and produce a questionnaire that will give the people taking part a non-biased set of alternate answers. The questions we decided on where as follows: 1. Violence on TV causes certain people to copy those actions in real life 2. People understand TV is not real life and have no wish to copy what they see 3. Children often act out violence from TV especially cartoons 4. Violence in playgrounds is not influenced by TV 5. Violence is sensationalised in TV soaps to boost ratings 6. Violence in soap story lines is vital to keep viewers interested 7. News programmes use to much graphic violence 8. Graphic violence is needed in the media to show reality in news stories To measure these results we required a scale, this scale is known as the Likert questionnaire scale and was devised in the 1930s, and it works on the principle of asking the question and then giving the subject five possible answers, strongly agree, moderately agree, unsure, moderately disagree and strongly disagree (the first two and last two can be reversed) Questions one, two, five and six were prepared using the answer scale, 1: strongly agree, 2: moderately agree, 3 unsure, 4: moderately disagree and 5: strongly disagree. Questions three, four, seven and eight were prepared using the answer scale, 1: strongly disagree, 2: moderately disagree, 3: unsure, 4: moderately agree and 5: strongly agree. The reason for this is to prevent untrue answers and is explained in the next section. Why are there anomalies in preparation and analysis When preparing the questionnaire we realised that we could possibly encounter problems in the way people would answer the stated questions, the Likert scale is specifically designed to prevent this. For example we could encounter people who would pick only their favourite number and pay no attention to the questions being asked, or people would stick to the left side or right side of each column. The way the scale is set out at the moment both someone who is anti and someone who is pro television would both score the same, 24, and somebody who is unsure of every question asked would score 24 as well. Also a person who sticks to only one side of the scale, say the right side, would score a maximum of 40. This would not form a very interesting conclusion and people’s true views would be unknown so we have to alter the scale to produce interesting results, we alter only the scale and not the actual answers. To alleviate these problems the scale has to go through slight changes when we have all the necessary data, but we must emphasise that only the scores are changed and not any of the actual answers given by the participants After we have made these changes it can be seen that we now have a set of interesting results with definite pro and anti opinions and the people who have not completed the questionnaire correctly have no bearing on the result. How the data was analysed To analyse all the data collected from the questionnaires we needed to produce a graph of all the answers. This table would show in detail how the subjects of the questionnaire answered our eight questions and, when we alter the scale, would provide us with evidence of the pro and anti television feeling. The graph shows all the answers to the questionnaire and also shows the changes made, the numbers in red show how we have altered the value for the actual answer e.g. question 1 answer 1 has now become question 1 answer 5 etc Summary results of questionnaire To find the pro and anti television views of our subjects we needed to work out the over all percentages, these were found by the mathematical processes below: 1. Strongly pro television: value 1 (79) divided by the number of participants (520) multiplied by 100 to give us 15.19% 2. Moderately pro television: value 2, 113/520 x 100 = 21.73% 3. Unsure: value 3, 45/520 x 100 = 8.65% 4. Moderately anti television: value 4, 181/520 x 100 = 34.81% 5. Strongly anti television: value 5, 102/520 x 100 = 19.62% These results show that 54.43% of the people who participated in our questionnaire are moderately or strongly anti television, compared to 36.92% who are moderately or strongly pro television. Other theories for the cause of aggressive behaviour Although the debates still continue on the links between television and aggressive behaviour, other links have been researched and their findings well documented. Probably the most well known person to document his findings on aggressive behaviour was Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); he had a psychoanalytical approach and stated that we all have innate instincts in the form of something called Eros (the seeking of pleasure and self-preservation) and Thanatos (a tendency to self destruct) He tells us that this tension can often lead to the Thanatos being projected outwardly and onto others. Freud stated that the need for displaying aggression comes as naturally as the need for food, drink and sex. The aggressive instinct can be displaced through cathartic activities such as sport. Megargee (1966) supported Freud in his findings and found that crimes are often committed by over controlled individuals who, over a period of time, have repressed their anger. Another approach to this topic was Lorenz’s ethological approach, his hydraulic model claimed that ‘aggressive energy builds up gradually over a period of time and needs to be released periodically.’ Lorenz (1966) stated that aggression is connected with our need to be adaptive, to fit in and survive within our environment. Dollard et al (1939) adopted a very different approach, the frustration-aggression hypothesis. This hypothesis claimed that aggression is always a consequence of frustration and the existence of frustration always leads to aggression. Dollard et al view aggression as innate and in doing so agree with the findings of Freud and Lorenz, but, say it would only take place in particular opportune circumstances. Aggression could possibly be delayed or it could be aimed at a third party, a scapegoat. It is as if the mind thinks things through and only acts when the time is perceived to be right, or is advantageous. Another view is that of Berkowitz (1966) who says we rely on certain cues to trigger our responses. Frustration leads to anger, which is different from actual aggression, the frustration cues a readiness to act. Then only an environmental cue will actually trigger aggression. This theory is somewhat similar to the frustration-aggression hypothesis but it has the intermediary response that takes the form of anger, something has to come along that tips us over the edge. Bandura (1961, 1963, 1965, 1973, 1994) produced a theory on social learning. He claimed that aggressive behaviour was learned through observation, imitation and reinforcement of aggressive models. Even non-tangible reinforcements such as the words † be tough† can have the same effect. Bibliography Course notes R Walters & P J Daly 2003 The psychology of Television John Condry

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Computerisation of Banks

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. The world as a global village has become so computerized that the use of computers is inevitable therefore makes them very important in all aspect of human life especially on the accounting field. Accounting system is a procedure that is designed by an organization for capturing all financial events and data in an organization. An accounting system after capturing and gathering all events and activities has the ability to process them and communicate them to interested parties for decision making. Financial institutions in many countries were so much concerned about the switch from manual to computerized accounting system. It must however, be emphasized that manual accounting systems has not been eliminated completely but reliance and dependency on them has been reduced drastically due to the emergence of computerized accounting systems. While many financial institutions responded quickly to the use of computers in accounting systems, others still face difficulties in adapting to these computerized systems of accounting. Most organizations have resorted to the use of computers in their accounting systems because of the inherent accuracy and processing speed of this automated accounting system. They also have resorted to it because of the efficiency which leads to higher profitability. It is obvious that this computerized accounting system has led to the reduction of time; cost and quick generation of reports since one no longer have to wait a whole day to get a report. Although the emergence of this system comes with a number of benefits, it still has got some problems associated with it. One inherent problem with this new system of accounting is the high cost of operations. Day in and day out, computers that become obsolete need to be replaced or upgraded to meet acceptable standards. In addition, this new system has brought about computer crimes. For example, the Equity Funding Corporation Scandal in the USA is probably one of the most outrageous frauds that have been committed with the assistance of the computer. Total estimated misappropriation as a result of computer crimes in the United States America seems to be in the region of U. S 35 million. These cost associated with computerized accounting system have prompted decision makers in financial institutions to do careful analysis of their accounting system and its loopholes before making a choice of a system which will suite them best. One thing that has also made the use of computers a delight is the less need for visual editing because of the ability of the computer to perform many editing steps by having programmed controls incorporated in the computer program. Recently, the allocation of resources or quota in banks for embarking on projects has been made easy due to the discovery of Swedish Grid Accounting System. This accounting system which was developed by Swedish Research Council maintains a Grid wide view of the resources consumed by its members. 1. 2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Despite the availability of computers at Ecobank, clients still queue at the bank hall and the probability of Tellers to make mistakes is high. Customers still queue in order to withdraw monies from their accounts due to power failure despite the ATM facility available to them. This also applies to those who have access to the ATM’s but still issue out cheques. Another major problem that the bank faces is the poor network system. Customers sometimes make payments into accounts of other branches and takes days for the amounts to reflects in that accounts. This research at the end will find solutions to the problems above and appropriate mechanism to be applied at the right time to encourage the effective and efficient use of computers available to Ecobank. 1. 3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study attempts to find answers to the following questions: ? What are the various hardware products available at Ecobank? ? What are the various software products available at Ecobank? ? To what extent has Ecobank used computers in their banking operations? 1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ? To get managements opinion on the concept of using computers in accounting systems. ? To make known to all some of the problems linked with the computerization of accounting systems in Ecobank, Adum. ? To find out how over the years problems associated with this system have been solved. ? To discover the impact that the use of computers in accountin g systems have had on the operations of Ecobank, Adum. 1. 5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study aims at: ? Solving some of the problems caused by the computerization of accounting systems in these financial institutions. Discovering how the computerization of accounting system has helped these financial institutions in their operations. ? Highlighting changes in a specific accounting system which has enhanced the flow of work at the bank. ? Providing researchers, banks, policy makers, students and lectures who offer I. T related courses find this material useful in appraising their syllabus. 1. 6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The research work was centered on Ecobank, Adum branch. The following are the limitations of the study; ? There was no financial and logistical allocation of resources needed to carry out the entire research. As a result, this study was restricted to only a handful of financial institutions here in Kumasi with Ecobank as the case study. ? interviews were made only in some selected financial institutions which have their accounting systems computerized ? Time was another constraint as the research had to combine the research with lectures. 1. 7 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION The chapter one has to do with the introduction of the study and consists of the background of the study, problem statement, the objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study and the scope and limitations of the study. The second chapter reviews the available literature of the study. Chapter three deals with research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, data collection and data analysis. Chapter four covers the presentation and analysis of the study as well as the discussion of the research findings. The final chapter covers the summary of the research, conclusions drawn from the findings and recommendations made. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1INTRODUCTION An accounting system consists of the business, documents, records, equipment, policies and procedures use to record transactions and events that affect an entity’s financial performance and its financial status. A good accounting system should be capable of meeting the requirements and needs of the financial institution for which it is designed. As business grows its transactions also grow and the firm looks for ways to speed up the accounting process by streamlining its accounting system hence the use of computers. There are many accounting tasks such as invoicing, payroll and bookkeeping, which involve the processing of large amounts of numerical data. Such routine transaction processing is a substantial cost burden on organizations and the desire to reduce these costs provides motivation for the early introduction of computer systems. The development of minicomputers in 1963 allowed medium-sized organizations to begin using computers for accounting tasks. The introduction of business microcomputer in 1979 extended the use of computers to the accounting function of smaller organizations. 2. 2 ACCOUNTING SYSYTEMS Several scholars in the field of accountancy have expressed their views with respect to the whole idea of the computerization of accounting system. In his study on the automation of accounting practice Strangster (1992) examined the factors that affect accounting information and concluded that the accounting environment, technological change and the availability of resources are amongst the most significant variables influencing accounting automation. To meet these needs and to satisfy the fiduciary responsibility of management, Accountants prepare a single set of general purpose-financial statements and reports. These statements are expected to present objective, unambiguous and complete economic facts of the existence and operation of the enterprise. This is what accounting reports generated from a computerized system would expect to portray, hence the act of report generations itself must be easy and not cumbersome. (Koerber K. (1992) P8) describes accounting systems as the field that designs and implements the system of records – Keeping that meets all the informational, processing and retrieval needs of different types of accountants within an organization. He emphasized that, an important segment of accounting system s Electronic Data Processing (EDP). He described further that before the advent of computers, all recordings were done manually. Hilton (1994) regards the accounting system as procedures, personnel and computers used to accumulate and store financial data in the organizational part which are the costing accounting system, management accounting system and financial accounting system. According to Bagranoff (1996) the computer’s ability to handle an organization’s routine bookkeeping has led to a growing emphasis on managerial accounting. Accountants freed from Bookkeeping tasks are now concentrating on the design of systems, the developments of budgets and recommendation of future managerial actions in a variety of operational areas. Increased in computerization of accounting system affects auditors as well, they are finding their jobs to be quiet different today due to increasing reliance on generalized audit software and other Computer Assisted Audit Techniques (CAAT). These tools allow auditors to examine computer output and processed more efficiently. In addition, traditional accounting firms, whose incomes used to be largely generated by audit and tax auditor are new helping clients design and implement computerized accounting information systems, hence the effects of computerization are an important area of study in accounting information system. 2. 3 COMPUTERIZED HISTORY OF GHANAIAN BANKS Over time, computerization has increased in importance in Ghanaian banks. Traditionally, banks have always sought media through which they would serve their clients more cost-effectively as well as increase the utility to their clientele. Their main concern has been to serve clients more conveniently, and in the process increase profits and competitiveness. Computers have been used extensively in banking for many years to advance agenda of banks. In Ghana, the earliest forms of electronic and communications technologies used were mainly office automation devices. Telephones, telex and facsimile were employed to speed up and make more efficient, the process of servicing clients. For decades, they remained the main information and communication technologies used for transacting bank business. Later in the 1980s, as competition intensified and the personal computer (PC) got proletarian, Ghanaian banks begun to use them in back-office operations and later tellers used them to service clients. Advancements in computer technology saw the banks networking their branches and operations thereby making the one-branch philosophy a reality. Barclays Bank and Standard Chartered Bank pioneered this very important electronic novelty and later Ecobank also started using computers in their operations, which changed the banking landscape in the country. Arguably, the most revolutionary electronic innovation in this country and the world over has been the ATM. In Ghana, banks with ATM offerings have them networked and this has increased their utility to customers. The Trust Bank, in 1995 installed the first ATM. Not long after, most of the major banks began their ATM networks at competitive positions. Ghana Commercial Bank started its ATM offering in 2001 in collaboration with Agricultural Development Bank. Five (5) banks currently operate ATMs in Ghana. The ATM has been the most successful delivery medium for consumer banking in this county. Customers consider it as important in their choice of banks, and banks that delayed the implementation of their ATM systems, have suffered irreparably. ATMs have been able to entrench the one-branch philosophy in this county, by being networked, so people do not necessarily have to go to their branch to do some banking. Another industrial innovation in Ghanaian banking is the various electronic cards, which the banks have developed over the years. The first major cash card is a product of Social Security Bank, now Soceite Generale SSB, introduced in May 1997. Their card, ‘Sika Card’ is a value card, onto which a cash amount is electronically loaded. In the earlier part of year 2001 Standard Chartered Bank launched the first ever debit card in this country. Its functions have recently been integrated with the customers’ ATM cards, which have increased its availability to the public since a separate application process is not needed to access it. A consortium of three (3) banks (Ecobank, Cal Merchant Bank and The Trust Bank) introduced a further development in electronic cards in November 2001, called ‘E-Card’. This card is online in real time, so anytime a client uses the card, or changes occur in their account balance, their card automatically reflects the change. Though ATMs have enjoyed great success because of their great utility, it has been recognized that it is possible for banks to improve their competitive stance and profitability by providing their clients with even more convenience. Once again computerization was what saved the day, making it possible for home and office banking services to become a reality. In Ghana, some banks started to offer PC banking services, mainly to corporate clients. The banks provide the customers with the proprietary software, which they use to access their bank accounts, sometimes via the World Wide Web (WWW). This is on a more limited scale though, as it has been targeted largely at corporate clients. Ghana Commercial Bank, Ecobank, Standard Charted Bank and Barclays Bank and Stanbic Bank are the main banks known to offer PC banking services. Banks have recognized the internet as representing an opportunity to increase profits and their competitiveness. Currently, no bank is offering internet banking (internet-banking) in Ghana, but some have well laid plans to start. Ecobank, Standard Charted Bank and Barclays Bank, also have plans for doing so in the not-too-distant future. Telephone banking, has also taken a big leap with its convenience and time. Barclays Bank launched its telephone banking services in August 28, 2002. SSB Bank also launched its â€Å"Sikatel† or â€Å"SSB Call Centre† (telephone banking) in September 19, 2002. The services available with this system are ascertaining credible information about the bank’s products, the customers’ complaints, bank statements and cheque book request and any other complaints and inquiry. The introduction of E-Zwich is another innovation in the country. E- Zwich is the brand name for the National Switch by Bank of Ghana, under the new Universal Electronic Payments (UEPS) technology which would ensure that all commercial banks, rural banks and savings and loans institutions in Ghana implemented a common payment platform and biometric Smartcard. To make this technology really feasible, the Bank of Ghana [BOG] (Ghana’s central bank) has issued a directive that all banks linked their ATMs & Point of Sale (POS) terminals to the National Switch, the E-Zwich by March 31, 2008. Banks with existing switches are expected to upgrade them to make them compatible with the National Switch by July 1, 2008 while banks without switches/ATMs / POS terminals are expected to integrate their payment terminals directly into the National Switch or through a E-Zwich compatible switch. GUIDELINES FOR THE OPERATION SOME COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM BY BANK OF GHANA. 1. The Bank of Ghana’s responsibility with regard to platforms for Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale Systems (EFTPOS) is to ensure an appropriate legal and regulatory environment, competitive market and high standards for cards, ATMs and ATM platforms. The Bank of Ghana (The Bank) shall also ensure that suppliers have the technical and financial capacity to deliver and support their systems. 2. In granting permission for the setting up of a platform and/or its operation, the Bank shall be guided by the need for an orderly development of the payment system. The following conditions shall apply: i. The provision of ATM and EFTPOS services shall be limited to banks and consortiums of banks and other corporate bodies; ii. The card technology must be ISO 8583 and EMV compliant while the platform/ATM system should be able to support different card types including smart cards, ATM cards, common credit and debit cards such as VISA, Mastercard, Europay, American Express, Diners Club etc. ii. Platforms must be interoperable with international ATM and EFTPOS networks operated by companies with international reputation. To satisfy this requirement, the switching companies must be operating in North America or Europe. iv. Banks applying for a domestic platform must meet the following requirements with regards to the number of banks, ATMs and the networking of a bank’s branches. ( a) More than four banks, minimum of 20 ATMs and 50% of the branches of each bank networked. (b) Four banks, minimum of 30 ATMs and 50% of the branches of each bank networked. c) Three banks, minimum of 50 ATMs and 50% of the branches of each bank networked PAYMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT PLANS Plans are far advanced for the introduction of cheque codeline clearing and truncation system. This system would decentralise the capture of cheque MICR code-lines and cheque images at the point of receipt of the cheques by the banks. The banks will then sent the electronic files of the code-lines and the images to BOG for clearing and settlement. This will enable the truncation of cheques at the point of economic deposit and the use of cheque images for mandate verification. It is expected to free resources like labour and reduce costs generally for cheques clearing. New regulations and relevant laws would have to be enacted to support the new cheque clearing environment. In addition to the above system, an Automated clearing House (ACH) would be introduced to handle bulk electronic credits and debits and thereby speed up the clearing of funds within the system. The SWIFT software messaging and communication systems will be harnessed to support cheque truncation and the ACH. Furthermore, new policies are being drafted with respect to electronic banking, card-based payments (e-money and debit cards) and the oversight function responsibilities of the central bank thereof. 2. 4 PROFILES ON ECOBANK Ecobank is an independent Regional Banking Group in Ghana and other parts of West and Central Africa providing wholesale and retail banking services to its customers. Established in 1985, Ecobank has grown into a network of over four hundred and fifty branches with offices in twenty- two countries including Ghana. The governance structure within the Ecobank group is such that the parent company acts as a â€Å"strategic architect† with limited involvement in operational management and decision making at subsidiaries level. In Ecobank, operational decision making is individualized and maintained at a level as close as possible to required action and customers. 2. 4. 1 Ownership/Branches Ecobank’s shares is presently held by more than six thousands (6000) private and institutional shareholders throughout Ghana and other parts of world. The company’s authorized capital is U. S $ 1250000000 ordinary shares of 0. 125 each. Ecobank has four hundred and fifty (450) branches with offices in twenty-two (22) countries including Ghana. 2. 4. 2 Workforce Ecobank Ghana Limited has close to a thousand professionals that is made up of management, branch managers, security personnel’s and other staff. In terms of gender diversity, forty (40) percent of its employees are female and the balance being male employees. 2. 4. 3 Mission Statement Ecobank is committed to enforcing management standards and policies in areas of ethics, anti- money laundering, conflict of interest and co-operate governance because it believes it enhances it shareholders value. 2. 4. 4 Vision Ecobank hopes to explore the potentials offered by the internet as an efficient distribution and communication channels for delivering the service provided by its network of branches and offices. 2. 4. 5 Customers Ecobank now boast of an estimated thirty thousand clients which includes governmental organizations, private organizations and individual accounts holders. . 4. 6 Products and Services ? Current accounts ? Savings accounts ? Cards ? Deposit accounts ? Personal loans ? Car and motor loan ? Business loan ? Bills for collections ? Transfer and payments ? Western union money transfer ? Call accounts 2. 5 THE CONCEPTION OF COMPUTERS IN ACCOUNTING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT DECISION The whole idea of the use of computer in accounting systems cannot be over emphasi zed without talking about the fact that it is based primarily upon management’s decisions normally made up of board of chairman, heads of departments and IT Specialist. These people having seen the need for the uses of computers convince the staff and all and Sundry on the use of computer. This is done having taken factual consideration of its negative effects. The decision taken by management was done as a means of increasing productivity and ascertainment of rapid information at any particular point in time as well. 2. 6Hardware Used At Ecobank 2. 6. 1 Mainframe computers The mainframe computer a high-level computer designed for the most intensive computational tasks. Mainframe computers are often shared by multiple users connected to the computer via terminals. The most powerful mainframes, called supercomputers, perform highly complex and time-consuming computations and are used heavily in both pure and applied research by scientists, large businesses, and the military. 2. 6. 2 Micro computers The microcomputer is the common among all computers. It is designed to fit on a desktop. However, it is not as powerful or as fast as the mainframe computer and has a smaller memory size. These computers were proposed by service of National Cash Registry (NCR) whose main functions is to assemble and supply computers and accessories to Ecobank and other financial institutions in Ghana. The computerization process began 1998 at Ring Road Central branch with an evaluation of the needs of the service bureau to the bank on the type of computers that will be needed to ensure quick and efficient service aimed at meeting the company needs, this was only done after the contract between the client company and service bureau had been signed. The bank used these computers upon expert advice received from these service providers though sometimes they could also bring out their own specification. 2. 7 SOFTWARES USED AT ECOBANK Ecobank borrows its software known as the Grab software form City Bank; they later adopted different software’s including, Tally, Aptra Hawk, Pips and sparrow. Each of the software’s performs different functions. The more sophisticated ones like Aptra, the Hawk and Sparrow are computer software used by the Automated Teller Machine (ATM), whereas the software Pips deals with micro processing which is engaged in cheques related activities. 2. 7. 1Introduction of flex-cube mechanism The activities of banking at Ecobank for example has been improved further with the introduction of flex-cube mechanism software which has provided all needs or almost all in respect of the banking work in areas such as ? Providing good reports and feedback; Storing large data leading to improved performance; and ? Providing central database software where activities were monitored to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. 2. 8 THE GENERAL PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF COMPUTERS The perception of the general use of computers in Ecobank when critically looked at can categorically be seen from the view point of employees and customers since computers influence their activities. Taking the manufacturing sector for example wher e over a thousand different jobs were o be undertaken by different employees before a particular process, now with the introduction of computers all these several jobs can be undertaken by the mere press of a button where something starts to build. The computer has been rendering thousand employees jobless thereby bringing tension and fear within that industry. But for customers of Ecobank it was like a prayer being answered, a long awaited miracle, where all their troubles have just come to an end. They were very pleased with such an innovation as long waiting and cumbersome procedures involved in the depositing and withdrawal as well as other banking and non-banking duties, will have been solved. This however confirms the old wise saying that ‘one man’s meat is another’s poison’. 2. 8. 1Perception Of workers on the use of Computers at Ecobank The whole idea of the fear of unemployment which was established in the previous topic discussed was no exception from that which was going through the minds of Ecobank staff who were working on manual till the introduction of these computers. In fact, the change over to the use of computers was met with serious resistance from the staff working at that time for the some old perception that they will be laid off â€Å"Change, they say, is painful but once adopted goes a long way to really workout for good whosoever is involved’. According to Ecobank staff, about three hundred (300) of the workers at Ecobank were deployed upon an exercise undertaken by Ecobank known as the Manpower Labour Rationalization Programme (MLRP). Here computerization was seen as the main reason for the exercise after which management budgeted for the cost improving and training each and every staff member left behind to have total knowledge in computer. Those members of staff who were left had to accept the change and were encouraged and educated on the use of computers to relieve them of very hectic activities which the machine could undertake on their behalf to make them relax after a long days work. The computer was finally received fully with employee cooperation such that the ratio of employee to computer is close to one to one and an average of two to one. The employees confess that the use of the computer has boosted their confidence and happens to relieve their physical as well as mental demand with respect their job. 2. 9 THE CHANGEOVER TO COMPUTERS-SOME SPECIFIC SYSTEMS/TRANSACTIONS The drift from the manual to the computerized accounting systems as pursued by financial institutions has been that of solving problems and creating problems. Some of the replace manual systems and everything that goes with them are enumerated below. 2. 9. 1 Account Opening With the manual system there was the use of the ledger cards which were on its own a hectic thing to use as cards could get missing at any particular point in time, the serious aspect was that when ones card was not seen then it is like there is absolutely no record about that account not even mentioning the balance of that account. But with computerization, there are regular points out of various account and other things, which are stored in the computer in other words, there is the hardcopy and the softcopy making tangibility of records available. Also with the use of computers so many accounts can be opened as possible as there is no much work involved due to the computerization of accounting systems. 2. 9. 2 Counting Of Money Gone were days where the hand was at the mercy of money that needed to be counted, whether large or small. Now the introduction of these money-counting machines has replace the counting of money by hand by which the former seen to be faster and hence speeds up work resulting in less queues in banks especially. Other institutions, insurance companies and financial service providers also use it. 2. 9. 3 Withdrawals The manual system resulted in the spending of more hours at banks as a result of long queues to withdraw money especially on paydays of government workers. This however, was very frustrating to the customers. The use of ATM especially to pay workers has reduced drastically this king of inconveniencies hence leading to fast payments of workers. With the use of a card where the name of the holder are programmed and put into the computer, with the help of a specially diskettes, the ATM however helps in giving cash, statements of accounts and instant balance that speeds up the process of payments. Other cards such as credit card, monde card, e-card, visa card, sikatel card all exists to make access to money easier and convenient. 2. 10 CHECKING OF ACCOUNT BALANCE These are easily checked by the use of computer irrespective of the branch due to the networking of systems available 2. 10. 1 Balancing Of Accounts The manual system was that of very hectic work as every account will have to be balanced by an accounting personnel before the day ends which sometimes eats late into the night, but with computerization balancing of accounts are done within minutes as the computer does everything with the correct accounting package in place. This is known as the self-balancing of accounts where no one really is involved. Journals are opened or written, profit and loss accounts are prepared by the machine. This invariably reduces the number of people working at the financial institution. 2. 11 INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTION This is normally done with certain requirements in place. The bank should have an affiliated bank in the country of transaction. Every link should have been cleared and terms understood by the bank being affiliated to. With computerization there is the use of the swift system, which takes place on remittance; Ecobank for example has an affiliated bank called the City Bank which deals with such transactions outside Ghana. This has seriously reduced the mailing system which was the style of the manual system where the post was used which could take months to complete a very simple transaction. Hard copies will have to be received through the mail, which sought to confirm that the transaction has taken place. In the course and zeal to computerized the following advantage and disadvantages were brought to light. 2. 11. 1 Advantages ? Increase in profitability ? Improved workout put 2. 11. 2 Disadvantages ? Power failure causes inconvenience to staff and customers. ? Redundancy due to computerization, Ecobank undertook one, which known as the labours rationalization programme. ? Computerization cannot be practiced everywhere or places where there is no electricity. Some of the branches that are not yet computerized. 2. 12 THE GLOBAL PHENOMENON-NEW DEVELOPMENTS With the current move to information technology in the part of the globe, there is a higher intensity in the use of computer where they are seen to do much of the work to be carried out. Much however needs to be desired as financial sections like auditing among others are still more evidence with the use of books and receipts which are required on hard copies for auditing purposes, this however makes total dependency on computer not very whole. In existence is the Computer Assisted Audit Technique (CAAT), which uses the computer as the main tool in the process of auditing, this technique given time will drastically minimize the use of hard copies such as foolscap sheets, and books etc. With the existence of the ATM card, e-card, e switch, master card, credit card, monde card and other mechanisms that limit the handling of physical cash, The other mechanism that limit the handling of physical cash the world is poised to enter into a realm where one will be able to undertake a 24hr banking transaction such as cheque withdrawals, international transaction processing of draft etc. ther financial services can also have the sale of shares; bonds done on a 24hr basis. Closing periods of the foreseeable future will gradually be extended to a time that will make financial institutions to undertake multiple shifts such as day shifts and night shifts. These only will be made possible with the use of computers that will be ready to run on a 24hr service to its customers. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the research techniques and methods employed in collecting data for the area of study. . 1RESEARCH DESIGN The type of research conducted is exploratory. This is where research is conducted into a research problem or issues were there are very few or no earlier studies to which we can refer for information. The aim of this type of study is to look for patterns, ideas or hypotheses. 3. 2POPULATION OF THE STUDY In order to achieve the purpose and objectives of this research work, the following functional areas were identified. ? Management ? Finance(Accounts Section) ? Information Technology(I. T. ) department All staff of the above mentioned areas in Ecobank formed the population of the study. 3. 3SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE The researcher used simple random sample technique to select twenty (20) respondents. Nine (9) members of staff were selected from the Account section, two (2) from the IT department and five (3) from the management team. Those chosen were people the researcher believes could provide the right and needed data for the study. 3. 4DATA COLLECTION METHOD Due to the nature of the study, questionnaires were administered to the management and staff of Ecobank Kumasi branch as well as interview. Observation was also used by the researcher in collecting data. The following are the details of the methods used; 3. 4. 1Questionnaires The basic means of collecting data for the study was through questionnaires. Twenty (20) copies of well – structured questionnaires were distributed to the target population. Each respondent was given a copy. The respondents were given one week to answer the questions after which they were collected. Questionnaires were made in such a way that it was so easy to understand by the respondents. 3. 4. 2 Observations and Enquiry The researcher observed that the answers provided by some of the respondents revealed additional information which was not provided in the questionnaires. The distribution of questionnaires directly to respondents also offered the researcher the opportunity to talk to some of the respondents and to elicit relevant information. 3. 4. 3Interview The one- to –one method, also known as the face-to –face type was used. This was concluded with the finance managers, to accounting personnel’s as well as the IT Managers of Ecobank who in one way or the other makes use of computers in their field of work. The interview was undertaken using a semi – structured form of questions concerning the whole idea of the impact of computerization of accounting systems on the operations of Ecobank. The use of the interview approach especially allowed for maximum flexibility and paved the way for the interviewee to really reflect the use of computers in accounting systems. The method yielded greater responses and brought out higher quality information that would not have come to light. On the other hand information coming from staffs reveals that Ecobank recorded about three hundred deployment rate of its personnel as a result of computerization. 3. 4. 4 Secondary Data These were gathered from Ecobank’s Annual Report, previous research works as well as library materials. 3. 5 DATA ANALYSIS The data collected were analyzed using the descriptive statistics approach. The answers to the questions were sorted out tabulated and analyzed using percentages. The data analysis in chapter four reflects the Fourteen (14) questionnaires out of the twenty questionnaires (20) administered to the Ecobank Adum Branch Kumasi as well as interviews and observations made by the researcher. CHAPTER FOUR Data Analysis and Result In this chapter, data collected through the administration of questionnaires at Ecobank has been analyzed into tables of absolute figures and corresponding percentages. Twenty (20) questionnaires, each containing thirteen (13) questions were administered. Fourteen (14) were completed and returned giving a response rate of 70%. Table 1 Rate of Response |Subject Group |Number of respondents |Percentage (%) | |Management |3 |21. 4% | |Information Technology |2 |14. 3% | |Account staff |9 |64. % | |Total |14 |100% | Source: Field survey data May 2009 Chart 1 [pic] From the table and the chart above, three (3) were received from management personnel, representing 21. 4%, two (2) from the Information Technology Department representing 14. 3% and remaining fifteen (9) were recovered from the Account section representing 64. 3%. This was enough for the research study. Table 2 Computerization of accounting system. Response |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Yes |14 |14 | |No |- |- | |Total |14 |100 | Source: Field survey data May 2009 From table 2, fourteen (14) representing 100% stated that they have fully computerized the Accounting system. Concerning what prompted the project, answers received from respondents were to enable them satisfy their customers with their services. With respect to the major problems encountered in the computerization of accounting system, the response is shown in table 2 Table 3 Problems encountered on computerization of accounting systems. Responses | Number of Respondents |Percentage (%) | |High cost of Training |7 |50 | |Lack of experience |4 |28. 6 | |Delay in production |3 |21. | |Total |14 |100 | Source: Field survey data May 2009 Chart 2 [pic] Table 3 and chart 2 depicts that seven (7) of the respondents representing 50% were of the view that the cost involved in the training of staff to meet the new technology is high. Four (4) of the respondents representing 28. 6% also claimed that the staff lacked experience in the use of computer techno logy. The final, which is delay in production which represents 21. 4% were also of the view that production after the computerization process delays. Table 4 workload after computerization |Responses |Respondents |Percentages (%) | |Increase |2 |14. 3 | |Decrease |9 |64. | |Normal |3 |21. 4 | |Total |14 |100 | Source: Field survey data May 2009. Chart 3 [pic] From table 4 and chart 3, two (2) of the respondents, which represent 14. % stated that the workload after computerization process in the bank has decreased as a result of computerization. Nine (9) of the respondents representing 64. 3% were of the view that the work load of the bank has decreased. The final groups of people were also of the view that the workload after computerization is normal that is there is either increase or decrease in the workload after the introduction of computers. With respect to special accounting package in use, the responses are shown in table 5. Table 5 Accounting package Responses | Number of Respo ndents |Percentage (%) | |Yes | 14 | 100 | |No | – | – | |Total | 14 | 100% | Source: Field survey data May 2009 From table 4 all the fourteen (14) respondents stated that there is a special accounting package in use and gave the name as Flex Cube. It was stated that it helps in storing data and providing good report. Lastly with respect to what staffs like about the manual system that the computerized accounting system could not provide, the respondents gave the view that the manual system has no capital cost involved in processing data and that the cost of maintenance is low as compared to the computerized system. The researcher asked whether there would be a total computerized accounting system in other branches in the country. The response is shown in table 4. 6 Table 6 Total computerized accounting system | Respondents | Respondents | Percentage (%) | |Yes |10 |71. 4 | |No |4 |28. | |Total |14 |100(%) | Source: Field survey data May 2009 Chart 3 [pic] From table 5, ten (10) of the respondents which represents 71. 4%, stated that there will be a total computerized accounting system in the next five to ten years to come. Four (4) out of the fourteen respondents representing 28. % stated that there can not be a fully computerized accounting system in other branches because of lack of adequate power supply in the country. THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERIZATION ON ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS From the interview conducted with the management of Ecobank, these were the responses gathered concerning the impact of computerization on accounting systems; Management were of the view that , the whole concept of the use of computers has been that of great delight for both benefactors and end users thus customers and staff of the financial institution involved respectively. Though initially for staff it was met with great resistance as it was seen to cause unemployment generally, but this has finally been accepted as working tool of which they have expressed their satisfaction in its works or activities so far. It was also revealed that customers received the new move with all joy, as they believed that less time was to be spent in the banking activities. It was made known that the use of computers received both approval and criticism. In much the same way, one can truly say that now the impact of computerization is seriously being felt in the banking activities such as fast service delivery, up to date and accurate database leading to quality results. The impact can also be looked at from the area of the transactions being undertaken by each company, the time taken to complete a transaction, the quality of account and report presentation, meeting needs of customers. Though the positive impact has been looked at, there is the need to also look at the negative aspect of computerization. Management made known the negative aspect through the interview conducted that, the cost element involved in maintaining the computers, delays by servers leading to a halt in the banking activities, training of personnel is also costly, modern software’s and the purchase of standby generators cannot be overlooked. IMPROVING THE POSITIVE EFFECTS An interview conducted with the Information Technology manager of Ecobank, Adum branch revealed that, it is important for anything that produces good reports and results to be improved upon to ensure further advancement of its effects on anything in general. Some of the ways of improving the positive effects of the computerization were made available as have been enumerated below. First of all, the introduction of new technology to build upon the existing ones is an area which must be brought in to reduce the negative effects of computerization. On the side of customer’s, the financial institution will have to make delivery swifter with more and more innovations being put into place for example where the ATM will be placed at vantage points in and out of the city, modes of withdrawals such as the mondex card, e-card and e-zwich. Any other form of credit card or master card should also be encouraged among clients, such that there should come a time where one can check his account even from the house on any normal phone. New technology will however mean that obsolete software’s being used is to be exchanged with newly advanced ones to bring out the real effects of computerization. Additional codes will have to be identified to ensure areas of extension of the computerization process. Further more, once computerization is helpful, the institution is seeking to spread its use within the financial institution, where each of the branches would be connected through a more recallable networking system. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION SUMMARY The computerization of accounting system has really come to stay for which further developments are expected in some few years time such the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) van. Manual accounting systems has not been eliminated completely but reliance and dependency on them has been reduced drastically due to the emergence of computerized accounting systems. While many financial institutions responded quickly to the use of computers in accounting systems, others still face difficulties in adopting computerized systems of accounting. Most organizations have resorted to the use of computers in their accounting systems because of the inherent accuracy and processing speed of this automated accounting system. . There is generally a calm atmosphere in financial institutions since the whole idea of computerization has now been accepted and is seen as causing higher returns for the Staff and management of Ecobank. The computerization system has brought about an ease on the hectic and tedious work formerly done manually by financial institutions. Paper work has considerably declined but not completely wiped out for the sake of auditing purpose and other reasons. The computerization of accounting system is setting the pace for other non-financial institutions to even see the need to computerize their accounting system in their financial departments, thereby taking a global turn. The activities of certain viruses such as car are not felt much as they are all dealt with by the manufactures whereas others cannot be easily noticed on time hence disrupting activities. Backup systems are therefore kept by these financial institutions to help mitigate future problems that are likely to emerge incase computers are infected with viruses and all important documents corrupted or crashed. Ecobank has been able to build up a backup system at Accra which stores all of its information which is retrievable upon any loss of data from any computerized branch. Upon misplacing ones ATM card the only way out is to re-apply for a card at a cost, which will be charged to the account of the customer. That not much information exists with respect to the computerization of accounting system in general let alone on financial institutions. Not much problems are being faced in the use of computers for accounting work as such allowing work to go on smoothly despite certain hitches here and there. In other to satisfy customers of Ecobank, 100% of the respondent states that Ecobank branch at Adum has computerized its systems fully. 71. % stated that there will be a total computerization of their accounting systems in the next five to ten years. This can be possible if there is adequate power supply in the country. 64. 3% stated that Workload in the bank has decreased as a result of computerization. 100% also that Ecobank has a special accounting package in use called Flex Cube. This helps in storing data and provides good report. On problems encountere d on computerization of accounting systems 50% of the respondents stated that cost of training of personnel or staff was high as compared to the manual system, whereas 28. % stated that staff also lacks experience and the rest stated that there is a delay in production. It is also emphasized that the cost of maintenance is high as compared to the manual system of operation. Finally the impact of the computerization of accounting system is seen more on its benefits that are yielding fastest information leading to quick decision making than on its negative effects which is basically the cost of acquisition of the machines and deployments of staff among others. From the research findings, CONCLUSIONS The study revealed the main forms of hardware being used by Ecobank in their operations. These include the mainframe and the micro computers. On the other hand, some of the software also used by Ecobank includes the Tally, the Aptra the Hawk and the Pips. The more sophisticated ones which include the Aptra, the Hawk and the Sparrow are computer software used by the Automated Teller Machine (ATM). A pip on the other hand is a software that deals with the micro processing of cheque related activities. Upon the research conducted, it came to light that, the whole concept of computers has been of great delight for both benefactors and end users being customers and staff of the financial institution involved respectively. The introduction of computerized accounting systems on the operation of Ecobank has enhance fast service delivery, up to date and accurate database leading to quality results hence satisfying their customers. Computers are used in financial institutions in general day to day gaining recognition with respect to what it is able to do and what problems it is able to solve. The issue has caused the whole financial sector to aim at the ultimate i. e. the use of computers in its activities. But an organization must now face the practical problem of streamlining and speeding up the asic accounting system so that the accounting department can keep pace with the rapid flow of transaction in the modern businesses. Even though there are problems to be addressed, the computerized accounting system is cherished by all users in the accounts department of these financial institutions who would like to cling to the computers than to go back to those hectic days of the big books of the manual system. Though it caused some level of discomfort such as causing about 35% deployment at Ecobank on the whole it has been a profitable venture . The impact of the computerization of accounting systems on the operations of Ecobank is a never-ending story due to frequent technological developments that keep occurring within short periods of time. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Upon the interview conducted and responses from questionnaires received, I would want to make the following recommendation for serious consideration: 2. Technology should be more advanced in solving the problems in situations where customers will have to re-apply for the ATM card due to missing pin number or forgetting it. . Staff computer skills should be upgraded frequently as new development on technology keep on springing up to be able to meet current trends in the market. 4. There should be the formation of committee’s on the I. T sections of these financial institution that will monitor the market in the areas of new innovations that are bound to arise in the future coming up in the financial industry for them to study it and see how best they can adopt and implement it in the heat of competitions existing in the market. 5. ATM machine should be placed at strategic points within selected areas which will enhance its influence in the work of financial institutions . in doing so constant repairs and in filling the machine sufficiently with physical cash should be done frequently to ensure smooth operations. 6. Scholars, authors, and others should be encouraged in the writing of books, magazines and newsletters on the introduction of computers or automation in financial institutions as almost all the information technology in general as such does not really relate to the topic in discussion. 7. That situations where the ‘server goes down’ should not be left unattended to but that all efforts should be marshaled to ensure that it is very minimal to really experience the true impact of the computerization of accounting system in financial institutions. 8. The public relations departments of all financial institutions should make known to the public by way of advertisement and other sources to really bring out the easiness in using these products, such as the use of the ATM card for savings accounts, cash withdrawals and checking of balance, e-card and monde card for shopping in designated supermarkets throughout the country. . Manufactures should rectify software which is defective in order to ensure continual flow of work output. This however will be made possible when warranties have given, concerning the software among other things 10. There should be routine procedures and schedules for maintenance and repairs of broken down machine to ensure that all the tim es they will be in good condition to deliver in terms of meeting customers’ needs especially in the area of the ATM. DEFINITION OF TERMS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM: The system that provides the information for us in conducting the affairs of the business. CODE HOLE: It referred to as a computing programming term that makes accounting packages easily recognized in the areas where an extension on the software is. COMPUTERIZATION: The process of replacing computers with the manual system hence uses electric means to achieve a stated object or work. COMPUTER: Is a general purpose and automatic electric information processing machine. COST ACCOUNTING: Is a conscious and rational procedure by accounts for accumulating cost (however defined) and relating such cost to specific products or departments for effective management action. FINANCIAL INSTITUTION: Institution that carry out its activities in the form of financial nature. For a examples banks, insurance and financial service providers. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING: The branch of accounting that is concerned with the recording of transactions using generally accepted accounting principles for a business enterprise other economic unit and with a periodic preparation of various statement. MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING: The branch of accounting that uses both historical and estimated data in providing information which management uses in conducting daily operations and in planning future operations A-6. PRODUCTIVITY: Is the rate at which a company makes goods which is usually judged in connection with the number of people and the amount of materials necessary to produce the good. SERVICE BUREAU: Is an organization that undertakes to install computers and computerize accounting for financial institutions. I. T. Information technology. NCR: National cash registry – A company that deals mostly in the computerization of institution such as bank, ministries, school etc. ATM: Automated teller machine. CAAT: Computer Assisted Audit Technique, where the computer is used as a tool in the process of undertaking an audit work. LAN: local area networking WAN: Wider area network MLRP: Manpower Labour Rationalization Programme EDP: Electronic Data Processing PC: Personal Computer E Card: Electronic Card APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRES FOR STAFF AND MANAGEMENT OF ECOBANK TOPIC: THE IMPACT OF COMPUTERIZATION OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM ON THE OPERATION OF ECOBANK. The purpose of this study is to enable the researcher gather information on the attitude, perception and practice on the computerization of accounting of software in your institution. It is purely academic work therefore all information provided would be treated as such and confidentially. Where answers are provided please tick [ ] as appropriate and where answers were not provided please kindly supply the information. 1. Have you fully computerized your accounting system? Yes [ ] No [ ] If yes, what prompted the project? [ ] Reduce Workload [ ] Increase Productivity [ ] Customer Satisfaction Others Specify†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2. Have the entire problem in the financial institution been solved? ] Fully [ ] Partially [ ] Not 3. How long have your accounting system been computerized? [ ] less than 5 years [ ] 6 – 10 years [ ] 11 – 20 years Others specify †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 4. What major problem did you encounter in the computerization of your accounting system? [ ] High cost of training staff [ ] Lack of experience [ ] Delay in production Others †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5. What steps did you take or have been taken to salvage the situation? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. . Was there any staff deployment due to the computerization? [ ] Yes [ ] No If yes, what effect did it have on the institution? [ ] Work overload [ ] over taxation Others †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 7. What is the ratio of staff to computer since the introduction of computerization? [ ] 1 : 1 [ ] 2: 1 [ ] 3: 1 Others†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8. Is there any special accounting package in use? [ ] Yes [ ] No Which software†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 9. What is the effect f computerized accounting system on your productivity? [ ] High return [ ] Break even [ ] Low return 10. What do you like about the manual system that computerized accounting system could not provide?†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 11. Are you facing any problems in the use of computers for accounting purpose? [ ] Yes [ ] No If yes, in what areas [ ] Obsolescence [ ] Difficulty in retrieving information Others†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2. Can there ever be a totally computerized accounting system in other branches in the country? [ ] Yes [ ] No If yes, how long [ ] 6-10 years [ ]11-15 years [ ] 16-20 years Others†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 13. How do you see the workload after computerization? [ ] Increase [ ] Decrease [ ] Normal Interview questions for the management of Ecobank 1. What is the profile of Ecobank Ghana Limited 2. What is the history behind the computerization of accounting systems in Ecobank 3. Does Ecobank have a fully computerized accounting system? 4. What prompted the introduction of computerized accounting system? 5. What was some of the problems they encounter? 6. What was the attitude of their worker BIBLIOGRAPHY Nsouli, (2002), challenges of the E – banking revolution. Sangster, (2002), business accounting Sangster (1992) strategies for Business Decisions 2nd edition Koerber k. (1992), accounting systems Hilton (1994) cost management accounting 2nd edition Bagronoff (1996) Decision support tools for choosing accounting software Ecobank Annual Report

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Development of childrens higher order reading skills Essay

Development of childrens higher order reading skills - Essay Example Children are always the same, it’s the educational setup that needs to be adapted to their needs for a good nation building. Knowledge is extremely important for every individual in order to keep up with the rapidly modifying dynamic nature of the modern world. Books are among the key sources, that children can develop knowledge from. Learning starts from the day the child is born. He keeps on developing an understanding for the world as he/she experiences matters of daily life. Every child starts the journey of speech from broken words. Then the child starts to link words to express his/her meaning effectively. These broken words are aided by actions. A child may not be structuring the sentence correctly, but is careful about acting enough so that the meaning gets delivered. With due passage of time, with careful attention and regular practice, the child unintentionally starts to construct the sentence in the right way. It is the nature of every creature to adopt ways to communicate, and this urge is inborn. A child’s psychology is greatly influenced by colors. A child’s world is a world of colors and fantasies. That is why in our life, at a later stage, we find things, that once we used to fancy in our childhood, very absurd. So the delicate child-nature needs to be dealt with immense care to develop good reading skills in the child.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Vocational Rehabilitation has a good effect on job placement for Research Proposal

Vocational Rehabilitation has a good effect on job placement for substance abuse people - Research Proposal Example It has been observed that the total number of vocational institutions currently prevailing in our society are comparatively insufficient as compared to the demand of the economy and the world’s population. Just focusing on enhancing the enrolment in technical institutes is not enough. It is very important to give them the jobs they deserve in order to earn their living. Presently, prevailing vocational centers have now started focusing on enhancing vocational competence of the population and workforce and providing them quality training which matches the needs of the economy and different firms operating in the economy. These vocational institutions provide degree for various subjects including computers, communication, business, art & design and many more. Establishment of these training institutions apart from providing advantages to substance abuse people, has also reduced poverty and street begging to some extent. Throughout the world it is extremely difficult to estimate the total number of street beggars including children, women, disabled people and others. Many of these people engage in other activities like collecting garbage from dumps etc. These people in society deserve some assistance which is being provided by such centers.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Business law - ethics essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Business law - ethics - Essay Example The law unifies all businesses. It is in great contrast, that a manufacturing company can produce vehicles and other automobiles that have defective fuel system design knowingly underpinning the ethical responsibility. There should be no risk benefit analysis profiles for companies as they break the law and make profits. Stringent measures should be taken to such companies such as heavy fines. However, the amount of money such unscrupulous companies make outweighs the fines applied (Gavai 28). The profits in this scenario blinded the company to lack ethics. It is in great violation of the â€Å"right to life† which all companies should ensure they are not against. Done away with should be all the risk benefit analyses in relation to the life of humanity. There are different ethical theories that were developed for application. The rights theory can be intertwined with the value clarification theory that stipulates that certain human rights are fundamental and other individuals are obliged to respect them. Everyone should be aware of one another’s feelings, values, and beliefs. It is unwarranted in law for such a company to continue being in business in great violation of this principle. I would consider a shutdown so that the law is followed to the latter and because it is not an ethical practice though lump sum profits. We do what is right and trust God, fate, destiny, or the forces of good to work things out, Justice or legal moralism (Gavai 32). There should always be some level of equity. The company never considered this as a principle and caused majority deaths. Governments must always have express and implied rules and regulations to shun deceptive productions, reckless business attitudes, moral irresponsibility, and unethical conducts. My company would have followed the rules as they are legally contained in the constitution. The company grossly violates utilitarianism, an act that

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Sociology essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Sociology - Essay Example Second, since impartiality is an illusion, science according to the ideological argument, subverts oppressed groups, females, ethnics, third-world peoples. Modernity came into being with the Resurgence. Modernity implies the progressive economic and managerial rationalization and differentiation of the social world. In essence this term emerged in the background of the development of the capitalist state. Anthropologists have been functioning towards studying modern times, but have now gone past that. The fundamental act of modernity is to query the foundations of past knowledge. Modernization: This term is frequently used to refer to the stages of social growth which are based upon industrialization. Modernization is a diverse unity of socio-economic changes generated by scientific and hi-tech discoveries and innovations. "Modern, overloaded individuals, greatly trying to maintain rootedness and the end are pushed to the point where there is little reason not to believe that all value-orientations are equally well-founded. Therefore, more and more, choice becomes meaningless. We must now come to terms with the second revolution, that of the Twentieth Century, of postmodernity, which is the enormous process of the destruction of meaning equal to the earlier destruction of appearances. Whoever lives by meaning dies by meaning (Browning 10 2000) Some theorists define post-modernism as an eclectic movement, originating in aesthetics, architecture and philosophy. Postmodernism espouses a methodical skepticism of grounded theoretical perspectives. Applied to anthropology, this skepticism has shifted focal point from the observation of a particular society to the surveillance of the (anthropological) observer. Postmodernity concentrates on the tensions of dissimilarity and resemblance which erupts from processes of globalization: the accelerating flow of people, the increasingly dense and common cross-cultural interactions, and the unavoidable intersections of limited and global knowledge.Postmodernists are doubtful of authoritative definitions and singular narratives of any route of events. Post-modern attacks on ethnography are based on the conviction that there is no true objectivity. The genuine implementation of the scientific method is impossible. . Sceptical Postmodernists: They are tremendously critical of the modern subject. They think the subject to be a "linguistic convention". They also reject any consideration of time because for them the modern understanding of time is oppressive in that it controls and measures individuals. They reject Theory because theories are plentiful, and no theory is considered more correct that any other. They feel that theory conceals, distorts, and obfuscates, it is alienated, disparated, and dissonant,

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Principles of management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Principles of management - Essay Example Megan needs to find out how CAR’s competitors are managing to sell their products at a lower price than CAR. Increase in the need of research and innovation A major problem of the CAR’s products is that they are getting comparatively outdated whereas the customers are looking for latest and innovative designs and features. Change management Last but not the least, Megan needs to manage any change that she makes to deal with the aforementioned challenges so that the strategies she develops are appropriately implemented and yield favorable results. Theoretical analysis Motivation of the employees is one of the most fundamental drivers of their performance at work as well as retention (Sandhya and Kumar, 2011, p. 1778). According to the Employee Retention Model, organizations need to understand what the employees like and what they do not like in order to retain them (Howatt, n.d., p. 5). While employees differ in what they like and dislike, an organization should address the needs of the masses; the most important needs and concerns that must be addressed at priority are the ones that are common. Once things have been adjusted in the big picture, it becomes practicable and more convenient as well to address the needs and concerns of individual employees. ... on of the word competition, competition means â€Å"[r]ivalry in the market, striving for custom between those who have the same commodities to dispose of† (Newman, 1989, p. 3). In this sense, a perfect competitor actually does not do any competition. The strive for custom is the action of competing and is a dynamic process. A firm that is perfectively competitive accepts the market price passively rather than paying heed toward what the rest of the companies are doing in the industry. There is an assumption of the rivalry in the market in all cases. On the other hand, the new models of game theory visualize competition as a strategic decision-making process that is under uncertainty. These models depict the engagement of firms and people in competition. For instance, â€Å"an important aspect of competition neglected in the models of perfect competition is the public revelation of private information held by individuals† (McAfee and McMillan, 1996). Solution for Employ ee retention Megan needs to conduct a survey to obtain the employees’ views on what are their expectations from the organization, what their needs are, and what aspects of the organization are disliked by them. Apparently, the case study suggests that the biggest problem is with the sales department, so Megan should start over with the sales department first because conducting a survey of an organization with 3500 members is quite time-consuming and taxing. Megan should identify the common needs and areas of concern and do the needful to address them at the earliest. Some of the ways in which Megan might be able to easily address their needs and concerns include providing the employees with team building trainings, increasing recognition, carrying out the culture inventory of the organization, and

Monday, September 23, 2019

Romanticism as Literary Period Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Romanticism as Literary Period - Essay Example Even Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, a confessional account of how nature is more than a memory of youth ("And I have felt a presence that disturbs me with joy / Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime / Of something far more deeply interfused, ) was coming from a man whose social and intellectual moorings reflected not just rustic roots. More particularly, the poem renders philosophical and meditative aspects of the sophisticated thinker often found in cultural and urban centers, which consequently finds ways to go back to the original sources of inspiration, mystery and awe, peeling the layers of stale customs and traditions to reveal the workings of nature or even the supernatural, (as portrayed by Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner). The Lyrical Ballads, objectively speaking could be said to a political statement asserting the primacy of the individual's feelings and imagination, and it has done so, moreso in intent. Execution-wise it was a bit too grandstanding, as other writ ers of other periods could also be called "romantic". The way that Wordworth's self-consciously and literally chose ordinary individuals and the rustic life as the worthwhile romantic subjects was an attempt to further drive down the point that poetry should be democratic (an offshoot of the influences of the French Revolution) and that it is the individual that matters, not custom and traditions. Shelley In the last two lines of A Defence of Poetry, Shelley sums up the power of poets to change society and awaken the masses: "Poets are the hierophants of an unapprehended inspiration; the mirrors of the gigantic shadows which futurity casts upon the present; the words which express what they understand not; the trumpets which sing to battle, and feel not what they inspire; the influence which is moved not, but moves. Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world." The poets, according to Shelley, belong to those classes of men in which the excitability of passions is strongest, and which the impressions or going-ons of nature and society work their magic - the apprehensions of the formerly "unapprehended", and consequently, this is communicated by the poets to society which is responsible for the continuity of language, and thus of society. Furthermore, according to Shelley, "the great instrument of moral good is the imagination; and poetry administers to the effect by acting u pon the cause." It is not that poetry directs or points out the rights and the wrongs, but in as much it moves mankind to the pursuit of what are sublime and beautiful and the eternal, and these have been the common goal of poetry since the ancient times. Shelley's poetry in awe-inspired tones invokes this spirit of poetry as a mover of mankind and society, primarily in they way that this spirit moves them, the poets. In Mutability, the endurance of human beings, rooted in nature's unchanging mutability, day in and day out is upheld. In Mont Blanc, Shelley regards the mountain as containing the "secret Strength of things / Which governs thought. More emphatically, Shelley in Ode to the West Wind, pleads for this

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Arthur Miller wrote the play Essay Example for Free

Arthur Miller wrote the play Essay What Miller does do to excellent effect is keep the pace of the plot speeding along and twisting in different directions all the time, at one time the focal point is on Danforth and his control of the court, then at another it is Abigail and the girls feigning that Mary Warrens spirit has possessed them. Throughout this extract he keeps the dramatic effect by having many different plot lines run into each other at this point; Proctors attempt to save Elizabeth, Mary Warrens declaration that the girls are putting on a show and Abigail Williams and the girls dramatic role-play claiming Mary Warren is sending her spirit out on them. All of these plot lines are intertwined in the court room scene and are exposed in John Proctors announcement that he is guilty of lechery. Some of the central themes and concerns in The Crucible are evident in this extract intolerance, being a society run strictly by a theocracy means that Salem is run by strict laws and religion. Any wavering outside these rules or religious thoughts is unacceptable. Danforth is intolerant when listening to Proctor and Giles Coreys attempted reasoning and proposals. Salem at this time was intolerant of any un-natural endeavours, just as America in the 1950s was intolerant of any un-American activities or communists. Acts of search and arrest became known as McCarthyism, led by Senator John McCarthy. Hanging those who were accused was seen as restoring purity to the theocracy in Salem. Another recurring theme in The Crucible is that of personal reputation. In this extract Proctor seeks to keep his name from being tarnished by giving testament against Abigail claiming that she is delivering her accusations through jealousy of his wife Elizabeth, and by announcing that he has committed adultery through his affair with Abigail. Reverend Parris acts only on what he thinks is best for his reputation throughout the whole play, particularly in this extract when he lies about seeing the girls naked dancing in the woods, I do not deny they danced, but I never saw any of them naked. Parris lies in order to keep his reputation, for if it were released that he had found his daughter and many other girls dancing naked in the woods and compacting with the devil then he would be driven from his office as the reverend of Salem. Judges Danforth and Hathorne are both unwilling to accept that Proctor is innocent and do not want to admit to being deceived by a bunch of girls claiming witchcraft and are therefore forced to charge John Proctor to keep their own reputations, making the interrogation partial towards the young girls and unfair on Proctor. The other central theme of the play is the role that hysteria can play in societies. The lies by Abigail all the way through the play and particularly in this extract easily manipulate the judges and the residents of Salem to turn against the accused which ultimately leads to their executions. Miller has linked this hysterical theme to the McCarthyism period in which he lived in the 1950s, the hysteria led by Senator Joseph McCarthy and his hunt for communists and communist sympathisers in post WWII America and during the Cold War. Miller seems to have based his character Judge Danforth on the individual Senator Joseph McCarthy: both are over-seeing the hysteria of the communities and are leading the search for the accused and presiding over their trials.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Creating a database Essay Example for Free

Creating a database Essay Introduction RS Supplies in London is a small business which specialises in the import and export of specialist medical equipment for hospitals as well as for other independent businesses. At the moment all orders have to be processed manually including invoices as there is no order processing system. However, the clientele is growing and Mr Parkes wishes to have a computerised order processing system. He has a computer which is used for typing up and storing invoices, but feels that a computerised system for processing orders and producing invoices is needed. User Requirements. Specifically he would like a system which will:   Hold details of customers and stock;   Process and calculate orders;   Print and store invoices;   Hold and check customer payment details ANALYSIS Initial Investigation Mr Parkes was interviewed to find out more detail about the proposed new order processing system. Payments Any orders for i 10,000 or less will have been paid in advance by customers, and an invoice will follow the payment. Orders for more than i 10,000 require instructions from the customer, therefore in invoice will be sent to the customer and the payment will follow this. Supplier orders and payments. The ordering of products (stock), and payment for them, will not form part of the new system. This will be handled manually by the user. Integration with existing system Each month a record of all payments from customers (in the form of invoices) will be stored in an archive file. This file will be deleted after being copied to an archive file in the existing system. This process will be repeated at the end of each month. Hardware and software Mr Parkes currently has a Pentium 3 500MHz PC with 64MB RAM, 10Gb hard disk and an inkjet printer. He uses Windows 98 as the operating system and has Microsoft Office XP installed on the system. This hardware will be sufficient enough to implement a system. The new system will be developed on a college network and on a desktop similar to the one described above. All files will need to fit on a 31/2 floppy disk for easy transportation between home and college, and some files may need to be compressed. The college network uses 800MHZ Pentium Dell PCs with 128MB RAM and are connected to both a laser and inkjet printer. A comparison of available solutions and software packages can be found in the Design Section. Users skill level Mr Parkes uses his PC for word processing and calculating orders as well as using the internet and E-mail. He is familiar with Internet Explorer, Word and Excel, but has never encountered Access. Data flow diagram The following data flow diagram illustrates the process of entering orders, invoicing and payments Objectives of the new system The system must perform the following functions:   Allow customer details and orders to be entered and edited easily and quickly   Allow invoices to be calculated, created, stored and printed Allow payment details to be entered and stored   Security of data via passwords and backup of data   Allow the user to search for specific products Performance Indicators The following are performance indicators: 1. The system must be flexible and versatile enough to hold any number of orders/invoices for a particular client. 2. Invoices should be calculated and printed in under 2 minutes. 3. The system should backup the information quickly and must be accessible easily. 4. It must take no longer than 10 seconds to search for a particular product. 5. It must not take longer than 5 seconds to search for the details of a particular customer. 6. The system must be able to allow the user to contact a client for any purpose by phone or e-mail. DESIGN Consideration of solutions There are a number of methods of developing the new system. 1. Manual system. This would be very tedious as invoices have to be word processed, printed and then kept in a folder for future reference. Clients would have to send an order by fax only and not over the phone, which means that the user would have to look up products and their prices in catalogues which would be very time-consuming. The calculation of invoices would be a lengthy process and there may be a lot of errors. 2. Spreadsheet system. This would allow Mr Parkes to keep details of customers, products and payments on separate sheets. The calculation of invoices would be made easier to some degree. However, it would take a long time to enter data and the format of reports is much harder in Excel as well. 3. A purposely designed system. This would obviously have a lot of advantages as the system would cater for every aspect of the business activities and functions. However the cost of this kind of package is very high and Mr Parkes would have to think twice before going ahead with this. 4. Existing system. The existing system doesnt have the ability to calculate, store and print invoices and consists of a very lengthy procedure (as stated in Manual system above), so it would not be appropriate. 5. Access database. The new system can be developed using Access, as it is a relational database which is currently installed on the users computer and on the college network. Final choice software This system will be implemented using Access XP. This package is suitable as it has many features which can be used in developing the system, such as:   The ability to link tables via a primary key and foreign key;   The ability to create a menu by using the switchboard function;   The use of macros to automate certain tasks;   The use of mail merge to create standardised documents; The ability to set a password to prevent unauthorised access;   Facilities which allow the creation of reports which can be formatted as required, and previewed before printing. Database design Entity-relationship diagram There are four entities in the database related as follows: Table design The four tables are defined as follows: CUSTOMER TABLE Field Name Data Type Description/Validation CUSTOMER ID Text (5) Primary key CUSTOMER NAME Text (20) ADDRESS Text (50) TELEPHONE NUMBER 1 Number Long Integer TELEPHONE NUMBER 2 Number Long Integer MOBILE NUMBER Number Long Integer FAX NUMBER Number Long Integer. Text (40) PRICE Number Long Integer, Currency QUANTITY Number Long Integer TOTAL Number Long Integer, Currency Form Design There will be four forms for data entry: CUSTOMER FORM This form allows the user to add, edit and delete customer details, as well as allowing the user to contact a customer using an AutoDialer. PAYMENT FORM This allows the user to import customer details from the Invoice form, enter the total amount of a customers order, and store the data in the Payment table. INVOICE FORM This allows the user to enter the details of a customers order(s), such as the product and its price etc. It also allows the user to create and print an invoice for any customer. The user can contact customers via e-mail through the use of a hyperlink to the e-mail client. PRODUCT TABLE This allows the user to add, edit and delete products. FORM Query design All processing of data will be carried out using queries which are run by macros on specific forms as described below: 1. Query1 When an order is entered through the Invoice form, the data is stored in Invoice table. From this table, the data is sent to the query, which allows the user to search for a specific order and check the details. This is possible because an expression is entered in the criteria section of the Customer ID field in the query. Invoices are created and printed from this form via a report with the same name as the query. 2. ProductQuery The user can search for specific products using the PRODUCT CODE. The following expression will be entered into the criteria section of the Product Code field of the query: [ENTER PRODUCT CODE]. When the query is opened, a dialogue box will appear asking the user to enter the product code, after which the query appears displaying the relevant data. 3. PAYMENT This allows the user to search for the payment details of QUERY specific customers using their CUSTOMER ID. The expression: [ENTER CUSTOMER ID], is entered in the Criteria section of the Customer ID field in the query. This displays the total amount of the order. 4. CUSTOMER QUERY This query uses the same expression as that for Payment Query to display the contact details of a specific customer. Report design Reports are used to produce the invoice as they can be customised by the user. Query1 This report is used to create the invoice. It is made from the query of the same name. The invoice structure consists of the records for each product a customer Macro design Macros are used for opening and closing forms, queries and reports, as well as importing data from one form to another, backup of tables, message boxes and record navigation. QTYmacro This is a macro which imports the Customer name and ID from the Customer Order Form to the Payment Form. (This is run when the user clicks on IMPORT CUSTOMER DETAILS on the Payment Form, but only runs when the Customer Order Form is open and minimised) MSG11 This macro displays two dialogue boxes when certain conditions in the design of the macro are satisfied. This macro is attached to the Total field on the Payment Form. (This macro is run when the user enters an amount in the Total field, which is less than i 10,000 or greater than i 10,000 and then clicks on CHECK PAYMENT) BACKUP INVOICE TABLEmacro This macro is used to backup data from the Invoice table to a database on a floppy disk. (This macro is run when the user clicks on BACKUP INVOICE TABLE on the Backup Form. There are three more macros like this which copy the tables in Table design above to the floppy disk) Menu design The menu will be created manually. Below are the notes on the implementation of the menu: There will be six buttons on the main menu which open the following forms: The main menu will appear automatically when the database is opened, and the main database window will be hidden. The application will show the company name and logo in the top left-hand corner (Title bar) of the application window. This will be done using TOOLS, STARTUP. Security The database will be password protected as it is vital that only authorised personnel have access to the database. All printed invoices will be stored in a separate file and kept safely in an archive, therefore fraud/tampering with documents can be avoided. Test Strategy The test strategy will include the following:   The testing of each form, macro, report query;   Testing the functionality of the system i. e. each menu item, command button;   Checking the system by running through a series of tests;   Establishing whether or not the system meets the end-users requirements. Test plan Test No. Test Expected result 1. Test password/startup Only 147 accepted and Main menu opens with company logo and name 2. Test Main Menu options All forms open correctly, Application closes when CLOSE selected. 3. Delete customer record for DJ001 Record deleted 4. Check that totals are calculated correctly by opening Query1 for AP001 Query opens showing all records for AP001 with correct totals 5. Check Invoice details for AP001 Invoice opens in print preview showing all records for AP001 6. Check Print Invoice function for AP001 Invoice prints correctly 7. Check AutoDialer for D. JACKSON Number dialled correctly 8. Check E-mail hyperlink Correct web page (www. hotmail. com) opened 9. Check Backup of Invoice Table The backup is successful and no error messages appear 10. Check Import of customer details for AP001 Details imported successfully 11. Check CHECK PAYMENT function for AP001. Dialogue box appears displaying the message CONTACT CUSTOMER FOR INSTRUCTIONS 12. Test Quit Application Application closes when CLOSE selected Test data set 1: Customer Table Test data set 2: Invoice table Test data set 3: Test data set 4: User testing The system will be tested by the end-user. This testing may reveal some functions and features of the system which do not work as the user would have liked them to. IMPLEMENTATION AND TESTING Test results Test 1: Test password/startup (Only 147 accepted) (Main menu opens after correct password is entered, displaying company name and logo on title bar) Test 2: Test Main Menu options. (All forms open, application closes when CLOSE is selected see screenshots in User Guide. ) Test 3: Delete customer record for DJ001 (Record deleted after DELETE RECORD was selected) Test 4: Check that totals are calculated correctly by opening Query1 for AP001 The invoice is calculated by selecting the required products from the combo boxes, entering the quantity required of each product, then clicking in the Total field to calculate the total for that record. Each successive product is entered by the same procedure, except that a new record has to be added for every new product which is to be entered. Below is a screenshot of the Invoice form from which the details of AP001 will be imported. The Invoice form is minimised and the IMPORT CUSTOMER DETAILS button on the Payment form is selected to perform the operation, as shown on the next page. The above screenshot shows the imported details for AP001 (The details were imported successfully) Test 11: Check CHECK PAYMENT function for AP001 The above screenshot shows the dialogue box PAYMENT CHECK. (The dialogue box appears displaying the message CONTACT CUSTOMER FOR INSTRUCTIONS) Test 12: Test Quit Application (Application closes when CLOSE is selected and the above screen is displayed. ) EVALUATION Performance criteria 1. The system can hold any number of orders for a particular client because each client has a unique CUSTOMER ID which distinguishes one customers order from another customers order. 2. It takes around 1-2 minutes to calculate, view and print a customers invoice. 3. The system is able to backup the tables, which hold important information, easily and can be accessed quickly as well. 4. It takes a maximum of 5 seconds to search for a particular product. 5. It takes around 5 seconds to search for the details of a customer, whether its payment details or contact details. 6. The system allows the user to contact a customer by both telephone and e-mail. USER MANUAL Introduction This application is designed to:   Hold details of customers and their orders;   Hold details of products;   Create and print invoices;   Allow the user to search for both customers and products. It is designed to run on a PC with Windows 98 as its operating system and needs Access XP to be installed. It requires around 2 Mb of disk space to store the application and at least the same again to store data. Starting the system Load Access XP and from the menu select File, Open. The database is called RS Supplies. Security and passwords You will be asked to enter the password on opening the database. The password is currently 147, but you should change this immediately by opening the database in OPEN EXCLUSIVE mode, then select Tools, Security, Unset Database Password. The main menu When the correct password is entered, the main menu will open, as shown below: The Invoice Form The Backup Form The Product Query (Product Query for product code C5073) The Payment Form The Customer Form Invoice Form Selecting this form will bring up the following: Calculate and print invoices The following steps are used to calculate and print invoices:   The combo boxes on the right-hand side are used to enter information in the corresponding text boxes on the left-hand side;   The quantity of a product is typed in manually;   Once all data has been entered, click on the TOTAL text box;   This calculates the total for the chosen quantity and adds VAT at 17. 5%; If more products need to be added, simply click on NEW RECORD and enter the CUSTOMER ID, then carry on as above;   Once the order is complete, go back to the first record and click on MAKE INVOICE. You will be asked to enter the Customer ID. After this, the query opens, check the data, then close the query.   You will return to the Invoice Form, where you click on V  Enter the total amount of the order in the TOTAL field;   Click on CHECK PAYMENT to determine whether or not a payment has been made for that order. Quit Application This is done by clicking on CLOSE on the main menu. However, this doesnt close Access. Backups You should backup the database to a floppy disk at regular intervals, and store the disk in a safe place. TECHNICAL MANUAL This manual is for more experienced users of Access as this allows the user to maintain or enhance the system. Macros The screenshot of the macro MSG11 gives an overview of the message box macro: This macro is attached to the On Click event property of the CHECK PAYMENT button on the Payment form The above two screenshots show the macro MSG11 in design view. There are two different conditions which display two different messages. The screenshot of the macro QTYmcr gives an overview of the SetValue macro: This is a SetValue macro which imports data from the Invoice form to the Payment form. This screenshot of the BACKUP INVOICE TABLEmacro gives an overview of the copy object macro: This macro is used to copy the INVOICE TABLE from the database RS Supplies.