Monday, December 23, 2019

The Effect of Trade Balance on National Income Growth

INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The attainment of balance of trade is always a critical factor in the economic development of many nations. This simply means that continuous trade deficits and surpluses are undesirable. The world has become a global village in which different countries interact with themselves and get involved in business transactions and trade. This kind of trade between countries is known as international trade which involves the exchange of goods and services between nations. Some countries are more or less deficit nations which mean they import more than they export, while some countries produce more than is absorbed by their domestic economy so they export the surpluses. Either of these actions means that a†¦show more content†¦He proposed as an example to suppose that he, a Frenchman, exported French wine and imported British coal, turning a profit. He supposed he was in France, and sent a Cask of wine which was worth 50 francs to England. The custom house would record an export of 50 francs. If in England, the wine sold for 70 francs, which he then used to buy coal, which he imported into France and was found to be worth 90 francs in France, he would have made a profit of 40 francs. But the custom house would say that the value of imports exceeded the value of exports and was trade deficit against the ledger of France. By reductio ad absurdum, Bastiat argued that the national trade deficit was an indicator of a successful economy, rather than a failing one. Bastiat predicted that a successful, growing economy would result in greater trade deficits, and an unsuccessful, shrinking economy would result in lower trade deficits. This was later, in the 20th century, affirmed by economist Milton Friedman. Trade deficits can be healthy if it is used in importing capital goods that increases output. Small trade deficits are generally not considered to be harmful to either the importing or exporting economy. However, when a national trade imbalance expands beyond prudence (generally thought to be several percentage of GDP, for several years), adjustment tend to occur. While unsustainable imbalances may persist for long periods,Show MoreRelatedU.s. Trade Pattern Is Affected By The 2008 Financial Crisis883 Words   |  4 PagesThe proceeding discussion elaborates how Sino-The U.S. trade pattern is affected by the 2008 financial crisis. There are few macro factors which are the driven forces behind financial crisis. From above sections, we conclude that the U.S. is more flexible to promulgate new country specific trade policy due to its imports centralization from few countries, and China is more sensitive to the protective trade policy due to its economic growth is more relying on the exp orts. The consumers’ purchasingRead MoreGovernment s Trade Protection As A Basic Economic And Trade Policy1383 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: Trade protection is a basic economic and trade policy which is based on national benefits, domestic firms and economic situation. Trade protection is designed to protect domestic firms and limit other countries’ business development in all over the world. Trade protections’ measures are set up to enhance own nation’s economic and to prevent other nations’ economical aggression. Although there is always free trade during international trade, which makes the biggest benefits of free trade to stimulateRead MoreThe Republic Of South Korea1410 Words   |  6 PagesCharacteristics The republic of South Korea is located in East Asia, according to the World Bank it is a high-income developed country with a developed market, with a GDP of $1.449 trillion(US) and GDP per capita (ppp) of 25,977(US), averaging an annual growth rate of 2.9%. Over the past four decades the country has shown incredible growth and global integration to become a high-tech industrialized economy. South Korea is the world’s 4th largest car producers being home to Hyundai Motors, the largestRead MoreThe World Trade Organization ( Wto ) Essay1508 Words   |  7 Pagesworldwide movement toward economic, financial, trade, and communications integration.† ( Globalisation enables vast growth within international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and standard of living (measured by Human development Index). Globalisation in relation to Indonesia has greatly expanded the country’s international relationships, improved standard of living for the na tion’s population and improved economic growth through assistance from strategies implementedRead MoreThe Trade Between East And West1650 Words   |  7 Pagesthat facilitated the trade between East and West. The modern territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan once hosted northern routes of fabled Silk Road and served as ancient trade hub, conjunction of trade channels, consequently supporting significant development of China, India, Europe, Egypt and others. Soviet period brought the region into integrated economic space with relatively efficient system; however, it was oriented towards the needs of Soviet economy meaning weakened trade with foreign entitiesRead MoreButler Lumber Case1404 Words   |  6 PagesStark’s share for $105,000 to be paid of in 1989 out of which $70,000 was raised by a loan carrying an interest rate of 11% and repayable at the rate of $7,000 over the next 10 years. Over the past five years, Butler Lumber Company has experienced rapid growth i n its business. It derives its business from retail distribution of lumber products in the local area. A large portion of its business is based in repair services, and as a result, it should be somewhat protected from a downturn in the real estateRead More Role Of Government In Mixed Economies Such As Australia Essay1741 Words   |  7 Pageseconomic policy? Why is the government concerned about microeconomic reform? Synopsis: The role of government in Australia today has less influence on the market than they did a decade ago. It function now is to provide a stable internal and external balance under which the market can function. This is achieved through the use of fiscal, monetary and microeconomic reform. Australia currently operates under a mixed economic system. This means that the government has partial control over the economy andRead MoreEcon984 Words   |  4 Pagesthat country. A5-3. In Saudi Arabia, gross domestic product (GDP) is less than gross national product (GNP). This means that the nation produces domestically more than it is able to consume domestically. A5-4. If aggregate household saving is negative, the marginal propensity to save from disposable income must be negative. A5-5. If desired aggregate expenditure is greater than actual national output, national output will increase. A5-6. If the domestic price level decreases, the price of domesticRead MoreWhy Do Nations Trade Based On The Concept Of Comparative Advantage?1585 Words   |  7 Pages1-why do nations trade based on the concept of comparative advantage? When a company or someone can produce at a cheaper cost than anyone else that is a comparative advantage theory. In spite of there are many criticisms for comparative advantage theory, but some people supported comparative advantage theory and they have talked about the advantages its, such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo. The advantage of using comparative advantage in nations trade are: - The countries can select lower costRead MoreMonetary Policy And The Financial Crisis1583 Words   |  7 Pagesmarkets. This document will analyze the impact of a country’s net balance of payments on the exchange rate of the country’s currency. An analysis of the impact of a country’s net level of interest rates and nominal inflation rate on the country’s exchanged rate will also be reviewed. In addition, a review of the growth in a country’s Gross National Product will be analyzed to determine if there is any relationship to a country’s trade deficits. Finally, a recommendation will be presented on how monetary

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Effect of Red Bull Energy Drink Free Essays

string(77) " the risks and purposes of the study before they gave their written consent\." International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism,? 2007,? 17,? 433-444?  ©? 2007? Human? Kinetics,? Inc. Effect of Red Bull Energy Drink on Repeated Wingate Cycle Performance and Bench-Press Muscle Endurance Scott C. Forbes, Darren G. We will write a custom essay sample on Effect of Red Bull Energy Drink or any similar topic only for you Order Now Candow, Jonathan P. Little, Charlene Magnus, and Philip D. Chilibeck The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21  ± 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0. 075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34  ± 9 vs. placebo = 32  ± 8, P 0. 05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701  ± 124 W vs. placebo = 700  ± 132 W, Red Bull = 479  ± 74 W vs. placebo = 471  ± 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults. Key Words: anaerobic power, caffeine, exercise Red Bull energy drink is purported to improve some aspects of performance (i. . , reaction time, concentration, and alertness) in exercising individuals (1). The primary ergogenic ingredient in Red Bull is caffeine. Acute caffeine ingestion of 2–9 mg/kg body weight during aerobic exercise increases endurance and reduces fatigue (11, 12, 25, 37, 46). Most research on caffeine ingestion has focused primarily on its effects during short-term or extended aerobic exercise (23), with numerous studies supporting an ergogenic effect from caffeine on exercise time to exhaustion (17, 22, 29, 46, 48), maximal power output (32, 37), and performance time (9, 41). The effects of caffeine ingestion on anaerobic performance (i. e. , Wingate cycle power) and muscle endurance Forbes, Little, Magnus, and Chilibeck are with the College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B2. Candow is with the Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada S4S 0A2. ? ? 433 434 Forbes? et? al. (i. e. , total repetitions for lifting a given resistance over multiple sets) are less evident, however. Regarding anaerobic performance, Collump et al. 16) showed that caffeine ingestion (250 mg) 1 h before 100-m freestyle swimming significantly improved performance time. In addition, caffeine ingestion (250 mg) 30 min before exercise resulted in significant improvements during a maximum-power 6-s cycle sprint against various loads (2). Greer et al. (28), however, observed no improvement in maximum force output or reduced fatigue during repeated Wingate anaerobic tests with 6 mg/kg of caffeine 1 h before e xercise; Collomp et al. (15) found no improvement during a single 30-s Wingate test with 5 mg/kg of caffeine 60 min before exercise; and Crowe et al. 18) found that 6 mg/kg of caffeine given 90 min before two 60-s cycling bouts had no effect on peak power or work output. Regarding muscle endurance, Kalmar and Cafarelli (35) reported that 6 mg/kg of caffeine given 1 h before exercise significantly increased submaximal isometric-contraction time. In contrast, Beck et al. (7) and Jacobs et al. (34) found no improvement in bench-press or leg-press muscle endurance (i. e. , total repetitions of lifting a weight corresponding to 70–80% one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) 60–90 min after subjects consumed ~2. 5–4 mg/kg of caffeine. Although it is difficult to compare results across studies, possible explanations for these inconsistent findings might include the dose of caffeine used, subject training status, timing of caffeine ingestion, habitual caffeine consumption, and exercise modality. Although the mechanisms explaining the possible ergogenic effects of caffeine remain to be elucidated, plausible theories include caffeine’s ability to act as an adenosine-receptor antagonist (18, 19, 23), increase plasma epinephrine concentrations (33, 45), enhance calcium release and reuptake from the arcoplasmic reticulum (40), and alter plasma potassium concentrations (18). These mechanisms most likely occur with larger caffeine doses, and it is unclear whether smaller doses would be as effective. Recently it was found that larger doses of caffeine might have negative health consequences such as impaired glucose tolerance (6). We therefore decided to study the effects of a smaller dose of caffeine (2 mg/kg) in the form of Red Bull energy drink. To date, only 1 study has examined the effects of Red Bull energy drink on anaerobic exercise performance in young adults. Alford et al. (1) found a significant increase in maximum speed during an all-out cycling test after Red Bull supplementation (80 mg caffeine). Our purpose was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on a more standardized test of anaerobic performance (i. e. , Wingate cycle test) and on muscle endurance (i. e. , maximal repetitions during bench-press lifting). These tests were used to simulate the demands of sports such as ice hockey that involve repeated bursts of activity or muscle endurance of both the lower and upper body. Energy-drink consumption and caffeine supplementation are very common in this type of sport (38). We hypothesized that Red Bull supplementation would increase Wingate anaerobic peak and average power and bench-press muscle endurance. Methods Participants Sixteen healthy physically active participants (12 men, 4 women, 24  ± 6 y old) volunteered for the study. They participated in moderate physical activity 2 or 3 Effect? of? Red? Bull? on? Athletic? Performance? ? 435 times per week and were instructed not to change their diets or physical activity patterns before or during the study. All subjects were required to fill out a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire, which screens for health problems that might present a risk with performance of physical activity (52). The study was approved by the University of Saskatchewan Biomedical Research Ethics Board for research in human subjects. Participants were informed of the risks and purposes of the study before they gave their written consent. You read "Effect of Red Bull Energy Drink" in category "Papers" Experimental Design The study used a double-blind repeated-measures crossover counterbalanced design in which participants were randomized to supplement with Red Bull or placebo and receive the opposite treatment 7 d later. All participants were required to come to the laboratory on 2 occasions before the start of the study, once to determine their bench-press 1-RM strength and again 3 d later for familiarization with the experimental design by performing 3 sets of bench-press repetitions to fatigue (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% 1-RM, followed by three 30-s Wingate cycle tests (separated by 2-min rest intervals) at a load corresponding to 0. 075 kp/kg body mass (4). There was a 10-min rest period between the bench-press endurance tests and Wingate cycle tests. Three days after the familiarization trial, subjects were randomly assigned to supplement with Red Bull (2. 0 mg/kg caffeine) or placebo (noncaffeinated Mountain Dew, lemon juice, water) 60 min before performing repeated-bench-press endurance tests and Wingate cycle tests. Seven days after this initial supplementation and testing session, subjects returned to the laboratory and ingested the opposite supplement drink and performed the same exercises in the same order. They were instructed to refrain from caffeine for 48 h, physical activity for 24 h, and food and drink for 3 h before testing. The 7-d counterbalance was chosen to allow subjects adequate recovery between exercise tests. The 48 h of caffeine withdrawal before testing would be adequate because the half-life of caffeine is about 4–6 h (24). The dependent variables measured were bench-press endurance, peak power during repeated Wingate tests, and average power over 3 Wingate tests. Physical activity level and habitual caffeine consumption were recorded before the study through the questionnaire. The exercise tests were chosen to simulate sports that involve repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, such as ice hockey. For example, the 30-s Wingate tests with 2 min rest between tests simulate the work-to-rest ratio of typical hockey shifts. Time–motion analyses indicate skating times of 30–40 s between rest intervals of either whistle stops or time on the bench. Whistle stops last about 27 s, whereas time on the bench is about 227 s, for an average rest interval of about 2 min (27, 47). The bench-press test simulates upper body work during ice hockey, such as occurs during corner play and occasionally fighting (26). A caffeine-containing supplement is ideal to evaluate for this type of sport because caffeine-containing supplements are the most popular type of supplement ingested by ice hockey players (38). 436 Forbes? et? al. Supplementation Red Bull and the placebo were identical in caloric content, volume, and taste. Supplements were provided to each participant 60 min before exercise in an opaque water bottle and consumed in the presence of a researcher. Sixty minutes was chosen because this is the approximate time it takes for caffeine concentration to reach its peak after oral ingestion (23). The caffeine dose of 2. mg/kg was chosen because it is an approximate amount shown to increase muscle performance (7) and reduce fatigue in young healthy adults, higher doses might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance (6), it is the maximal daily dose of commercial energy drinks considered safe by Health Canada (30), and this dose allowed our heaviest subjects to consume approximately 2 cans o f Red Bull, which is the maximal amount recommended on the Red Bull label. Ingredients in the Red Bull energy drink are shown in Table 1. Muscle Strength and Endurance The procedures for determining bench-press 1-RM have previously been described (13). All bench-press testing was done on a bench-press machine (Lever chest-press machine, Winnipeg, MB, Canada). Reproducibility of our 1-RM test, expressed as a coefficient of variation, was 1. 9% (14). For bench-press muscle endurance, participants performed 3 sets of bench-press repetitions to volitional fatigue, separated by 1-min rest intervals, at an intensity corresponding to 70% 1-RM. Reproducibility of the bench-press endurance test was assessed by testing 15 subjects 3 d apart. The coefficient of variation was 1. 5%. Anaerobic Power Peak power and average power were assessed using repeated Wingate cycleergometer tests. Blood lactate concentration was measured at rest, immediately after each Wingate cycle test, and 2 min postexercise using an automated lactate analyzer (Accutrend Lactate, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Ten minutes after the bench-press endurance test, each subject was positioned on the Wingate cycle ergometer, and seat height, handlebar Table 1 Red Bull Energy-Drink Ingredients Ingredient Sugar Caffeine Taurine Glucuronolactone Niacin Pantothenic acid Vitamin B6 Riboflavin Vitamin B12 Amount (per kg body mass) 0. 65 g/kg 2. 0 mg/kg 25 mg/kg 15 mg/kg 0. 45 mg/kg 0. 15 mg/kg 0. 5 mg/kg 0. 04 mg/kg 0. 025  µg/kg Effect? of? Red? Bull? on? Athletic? Performance? ? 437 height and position, and toe straps were adjusted based on the settings determined during the familiarization trial. Subjects were instructed to cycle at a slow pace against zero resistance for 5 min. Five seconds before data collection, they were instructed to pedal at maximal rate to ensure optimal power and force production at the beginning of the test and to continue cycling at a maximal speed for the duration of the 30-s test at a load corresponding to 7. 5% of their body mass (4). Subjects were verbally encouraged throughout the test. This procedure was repeated for 3 tests, with 2 min of active rest against zero load between tests. Reproducibility of peak and average power was determined by testing 10 subjects 3 d apart. The coefficients of variation were 4. 1% for peak power and 3. 6% for average power. Statistical Analyses A 2 (caffeine-consuming subjects vs. caffeine-naive subjects) ? 2 (supplement: Red Bull vs. placebo) ? 3 (exercise sets) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last 2 factors was used to assess differences between conditions for benchpress repetitions and for peak and average power during the Wingate tests. A 2 (caffeine-consuming subjects vs. affeine naive subjects) ? 2 (supplement: Red Bull vs. placebo) ? 5 (blood lactate at 5 time points) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last 2 factors was used to assess changes in blood lactate concentration. To determine whether 1 familiarization trial was adequate to eliminate any effects of learning over time, we ran a 3 (set) ? 2 (time) repeatedmeasur es ANOVA to determine whether there were differences across sets for Wingate tests and bench-press tests between the familiarization and placebo trials. Tukey’s post hoc tests were used to determine differences between means. Statistical significance was set at P ? 0. 05. All results are expressed as mean  ± standard deviation. Statistical analyses were carried out using Statistica, version 5. 0 (StatsSoft Inc. , Chicago). Results Of the original 16 subjects who volunteered, 15 completed the study. One male subject withdrew because of time constraints. Seven subjects were correct in perceiving that they were ingesting Red Bull or placebo, with the remaining subjects unsure. Before testing, 8 subjects were caffeine naive, 4 reported consuming 100 mg caffeine/d, and 3 reported consuming 200 mg/d. There were no side effects reported from the exercise testing, Red Bull energy drink, or placebo. There were no time main effects or set ? time interactions between the familiarization trial and the placebo trial, indicating that the familiarization trial was adequate to eliminate any learning effects. Subjects who regularly consumed caffeine did not differ from caffeine-naive subjects for any of the tests or for their responses to Red Bull versus placebo (i. e. , there were no group ? supplement interactions). There was a supplement main effect for bench-press endurance, whereby the number of repetitions over the 3 sets was greater in the Red Bull condition than with placebo (Red Bull = 34  ± 9 vs. lacebo = 32  ± 8 repetitions over the 3 sets, P = 0. 031; Figure 1). There was a set main effect for bench-press endurance, Wingate peak power (Figure 2), and Wingate average power (Figure 3); that is, performance dropped across sets as 438 Forbes? et? al. would be expected (P 0. 05). There were no differences between Red Bull and placebo for performance across sets during the Wi ngate tests (peak and average power: Red Bull = 701  ± 124 W vs. placebo = 700  ± 132 W and Red Bull = 479  ± 74 W vs. placebo = 471  ± 74 W), and there were no supplement ? et interactions for any of the exercise tests (Figures 2 and 3). There was a time main effect for blood lactate (mmol/L) during repeated Wingate tests (P 0. 01; baseline: Red Bull: 4. 2  ± 1. 3 vs. placebo 3. 6  ± 1. 0; after test 1: Red Bull 7. 4  ± 2. 4 vs. placebo 6. 6  ± 1. 8; after Test 2: Red Bull 9. 0  ± 2. 9 vs. placebo 8. 9  ± 3. 4; after Test 3: Red Bull 9. 3  ± 4. 2 vs. placebo 8. 1  ± 4. 7; and 2 min postexercise: Red Bull 9. 2  ± 3. 0 vs. placebo 7. 9  ± 2. 4), with no differences between Red Bull and placebo (Figure 4). Post hoc analyses indicated that blood Total repetitions over 3 sets of bench press 5 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Red Bull placebo * Figure 1 — Bench-press repetitions across sets, mean  ± standard deviation. Units are repetition number. Repetition number was determined as the total number of repetitions over 3 sets of bench-press exercise at 70% of 1-repetition maximum, 1 min of rest between sets. *Number of repetitions performed during the Red Bull condition was greater than the number of repetitions performed during the placebo condition (P = 0. 031). 850 Red Bull placebo Wingate peak power (W) 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Figure 2 — Wingate peak power across sets, mean  ± standard deviation. Peak power was determined by the highest power output during each of 3 sets of 30-s Wingate tests, with 2 min of rest between tests. There were no differences between Red Bull and placebo conditions. There was a main effect for set, with Set 1 higher than Set 2 (P = 0. 021) and Set 2 higher than Set 3 (P 0. 01). Effect? of? Red? Bull? on? Athletic? Performance? ? 439 700 Wingate average power (W) 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 Set 1 Set 2 Red Bull placebo Set 3 Figure 3 — Wingate average power across sets, mean  ± standard deviation. Average power was determined during each of 3 sets of 30-s Wingate tests, with 2 min of rest between tests. There was a set main effect, with Set 1 higher than Set 2 (P 0. 01) and Set 2 higher than Set 3 (P 0. 01). 14 12 Red Bull placebo Lactate (mMol/L) 10 8 6 4 2 0 baseline after Set 1 after Set 2 after Set 3 2 min post Figure 4 — Blood lactate concentration before and after each set of 30-s Wingate tests (separated by 2 min of recovery) and 2 min postexercise, mean  ± standard deviation. Blood lactate values were determined from fingertip blood samples. There was a set main effect for lactate (P 0. 01). Blood lactate concentration increased from baseline to after Set 1 (P 0. 01) and from after Set 1 to after Set 2 (P = 0. 016). Lactate values after Set 2 were similar to lactate values after Set 3 and 2 min after Set 3. lactate concentration was elevated above baseline after each Wingate test and at 2 min after the last Wingate test (all P 0. 01). Blood lactate concentration increased from baseline to after Test 1 (P 0. 01) and from after Test 1 to after Test 2 (P = 0. 16). Lactate values after Test 2 were similar those after Test 3 and 2 min after Test 3. Discussion This is the first study to investigate the effects of Red Bull energy drink on upper body muscle endurance and anaerobic cycle performance in young adults. Results 440 Forbes? et? al. showed that Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets compared with plac ebo but had no significant effect on peak or average power or blood lactate concentration during repeated Wingate cycling tests. The main active ingredient in Red Bull energy drink is caffeine. Although the mechanisms explaining the ergogenic effects of caffeine are not fully known, plausible theories include the antagonism of adenosine receptors (18, 23, 42) leading to an increase in central-nervous-system activation (54) and plasma epinephrine concentrations (45), enhanced calcium release and reuptake from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (40) affecting skeletal-muscle excitation–contraction coupling (42), and the alteration of plasma potassium concentrations (18, 39). Caffeine has been shown to reduce plasma potassium levels compared with placebo during exercise (39). The increased intracellular potassium concentration coupled with lower extracellular potassium might help maintain membrane contractility during exercise (39). Our results of a greater increase in bench-press repetitions over 3 sets from Red Bull ingestion (2. 0 mg/kg), but no single set effect, expand the findings of Beck et al. (7), who found no effect of a caffeine-containing supplement (2. 4 mg/kg) on single-set bench-press repetitions. For the present study, bench-press muscle endurance was assessed by the total number of repetitions over 3 sets at 70% 1-RM separated by 1-min rest intervals. In contrast, participants in the Beck et al. (7) study performed a single set of bench-press repetitions at 80% 1-RM. Differences in supplement composition, study design (crossover vs. cross-sectional), and gender might also explain these different results. In addition, we cannot conclude with certainty that the greater increase in bench-press repetitions from Red Bull energy drink is a result solely of caffeine, because Red Bull contains other ingredients (see Table 1) such as carnitine, B vitamins, and taurine. The effectiveness of carnitine is controversial, with most studies showing no benefit but some showing a benefit for increased fat metabolism and enhanced recovery from exercise stress (for reviews, see 10 and 36). These ergogenic effects might help during aerobic endurance exercise; however, it is doubtful that a benefit would be provided by acute supplementation before high-intensity exercise. Carnitine supplementation has no effect on high-intensity exercise performance (i. e. five 90-m swims separated by 2-min rest intervals) (53) or metabolic response to high-intensity exercise (i. e. , five 1-min cycle sprints separated by 2-min rest intervals) (5). The B vitamins are important for chronic adaptation to exercise training but most likely would have minimal influence when taken before an acute exercise session (55). Although carnitine and the B vitamins might not be ergogenic for the exercise tests used in the current study, taurine might exhibit beneficial effects. Taurine, a sulfonic amino acid found primarily in skeletal muscle (31, 44), has been shown to increase force production in skinned muscle fibers in a rodent model (3), possibly through increased calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and increased calcium sensitivity for excitation–contraction coupling. Others have suggested that taurine might exhibit protective effects against cellular stress such as exercise by acting as a free-radical scavenger (49). In humans, taurine supplementation (6 g/d) significantly increased exercise time to exhaustion, VO2max, and maximal workload during cycle-ergometer exercise (56). Nonetheless, the amount of taurine administered before exercise in the current study was relatively low, ranging from 1 to 2 g. Therefore, it is doubtful that it would have significantly affected performance. Effect? of? Red? Bull? on? Athletic? Performance? ? 441 Red Bull energy drink had no effect on anaerobic power measures. These findings support those of Beck et al. 7), who found no effect from a caffeine-containing supplement on peak or average power output in young adults. Although it is unclear why these caffeine-containing supplements had no greater effect on anaerobic power output compared with the findings of others (2, 16), possible explanations might include the caffeine dose used, caffeine habituation, and individual training status. The caffeine dose used in the current study (2. 0 mg/kg) and that of Beck et al. (7) of 2. 4 mg/kg might have been too low to observe an ergogenic effect on anaerobic-power measures. Regarding caffeine habituation, most subjects in the current study were caffeine naive; however, 7 of 15 subjects were caffeine users, with 4 consuming 100 mg caffeine per day and 3 consuming 200 mg caffeine per day. The Red Bull energy drink provided approximately an additional 150 mg caffeine. One previous study suggested that caffeine might not be ergogenic in habitual caffeine consumers as a result of caffeine saturation (50). Several studies have shown, however, that habitual caffeine intake does not affect the ergogenic benefits of caffeine (8, 20, 21, 43, 51). In agreement with these studies, we did not find any differences in response to the Red Bull energy drink between caffeineconsuming subjects and caffeine-naive subjects. Finally, in examining the effects of caffeine ingestion on anaerobic performance in trained and untrained swimmers, Collump et al. (16) observed a decrease in 100-m swim time in the trained swimmers but no effect in the untrained swimmers. We suggest that the variations in subject training status might explain the lack of consistency across studies. Most studies that report positive effects from caffeine on naerobic exercise have used well-trained subjects (16, 20). The results of the current study suggest that moderately active individuals experience no anaerobic benefit from caffeine through Red Bull energy-drink ingestion. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that Red Bull energy drink increases upper body muscle endurance but has no effect on Wingate anaerobic power. Red Bull energy drink is comm only ingested in the hope that it will increase exercise performance. These findings suggest that it might be effective for individuals who perform repeated upper body exercise. Future research is needed to determine whether this increase in upper body muscle endurance will translate into improved performance in sports involving upper body muscle work. References 1. Alford, C. , H. Cox, and R. Wescott. The effects of Red Bull energy drink on human performance and mood. Amino Acids. 21:139-150, 2000. 2. Anselme, F. , K. Collump, B. Mercier, S. Ahmaidi, and C. Prefaut. Caffeine increases maxim anaerobic power and blood lactate concentration. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 65:188191, 1992. 3. Bakker, A. J. , and H. M. Berg. The effects of taurine on sarcoplasmic reticulum function and contractile properties in skinned skeletal muscle fibers of the rat. J. Physiol. 538:185-194, 2002. 4. Bar-Or, O. The Wingate anaerobic test: an update on methodology, reliability and validity. Sports Med. 4:381-394, 1987. 5. Barnett, C. , D. L. Costill, M. D. Vukovich, et al. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle and blood carnitine content and lactate accumulation during high-intensity sprint cycling. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 4:280-288, 1994. 442 Forbes? et? al. 6. Battram, D. S. , R. Arthur, A. Weekes, and T. E. Graham. The glucose intolerance induced by caffeinated coffee ingestion is less pronounced than that due to alkaloid caffeine in men. J. Nutr. 136:1276-1280, 2006. 7. Beck, T. W. , T. J. Housh, R. J. Schmidt, et al. The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities. J. Strength Cond. Res. 20:506-510, 2006. 8. Bell, D. G. , I. Jacobs, and K. Ellerington. Effect of caffeine and ephedrine ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 33:1399-1403, 2001. 9. Berglund, B. , and P. Hemmingsson. Effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise performance at low and high altitudes in cross-country skiing. Int. J. Sports Med. 3:234-236, 1982. 10. Brass, E. P. Carnitine and sports medicine: use or abuse? Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1033:6778, 2004. 11. Bruce, C. R. , M. E. Anderson, S. F. Fraser, et al. Enhancement of 2000-m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32:1958-1963, 2000. 12. Cadarette, B. S. , L. Levine, and C. L. Berube. Effects of varied dosages of caffeine on endurance exercise to fatigue. In: Biochemistry of Exercise (13th ed. International series of sport sciences), H. G. Knuttgen, J. A. Vogel, and J. Poortmans (Eds). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1982, pp. 871-876. 13. Candow, D. G. , N. C. Burke, T. Smith-Palmer, and D. G Burke. Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Int. J. Sport. Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 16:233-244, 2006. 14. Candow, D. G. , P. D. Chilibeck, D. G. Burke, K. S. Davison, and T. S. Palmer. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young men. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 86:142-149, 2001. 15. Collomp, K. , S. Ahmaidi, M. Audran, J. L. Chanal, and C. Prefaut. Effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and anaerobic metabolism during the Wingate test. Int. J. Sports Med. 12:439-443, 1991. 16. Collump, K. , S. Ahmaidi, J. C. Chatard, M. Audran, and C. Prefaut. Benefits of caffeine ingestion on sprint performance in trained and untrained swimmers. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 64:377-380, 1992. 17. Costill, D. L. , G. P. Dalsky, and W. J. Fink. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Med. Sci. Sports. 10:155-158, 1978. 18. Crowe, M. J. , A. S. Leicht, and W. L. Spinks. Physiological and cognitive responses to caffeine during repeated, high intensity exercise. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 16:528-544, 2006. 19. Cureton, K. J. , G. L. Warren, M. L. Millard-Stafford, J. E. Wingo, J. Trilk, and M. Buyckx. Caffeinated sports drink: ergogenic effects and possible mechanisms. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 17:35-55, 2007. 20. Doherty, M. The effects of caffeine on the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit and short-term running performance. Int. J. Sport Nutr. 8:95-104, 1998. 21. Doherty, M. , P. M. Smith, M. G. Hughes, and R. C. Davison. Caffeine lowers erceptual response and increases power output in high-intensity cycling. J. Sports Sci. 22:637643, 2004. 22. Flinn, S. , J. Gregory, L. R. McNaughton, S. Tristram, and P. Davies. Caffeine ingestion prior to incremental cycling to exhaustion in recreational cyclists. Int. J. Sports Med. 11:188-193, 1990. 23. Graham, T. E. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance. Sports Med. 31:785- 807, 2001. 24. Graham, T. E. Caffeine, coffee and ephedrine: impact on exercise performance and metabolism. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 26(Suppl. ):S103-S119, 2001. 25. Graham, T. E. , and L. L. Spriet. Metabolic, catecholamine, and exercise performance responses to various doses of caffeine. J. Appl. Physiol. 78:867-874, 1995. Effect? of? Red? Bull? on? Athletic? Performance? ? 443 26. Green, H. J. Metabolic aspects of intermittent work with specific regard to ice hockey. Can. J. Appl. Sport Sci. 4:29-34, 1979. 27. Green, H. J. , P. Bishop, M. Houston, R. McKillop, R. Norman, and P. Stothart. Timemotion and physiological assessments of ice hockey performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 40:159-163, 1976. 28. Greer, F. , C. McLean, and T. E. Graham. Caffeine, performance, and metabolism during repeated Wingate exercise tests. J. Appl. Physiol. 85:1502-1508, 1998. 29. Greer, F. , D. Friars, and T. E. Graham. Comparison of caffeine and theophylline ingestion: exercise metabolism and endurance. J. Appl. Physiol. 89:1837-1844, 2000. 30. Health Canada. It’s Your Health. Available at: http://www. hc-sc. gc. ca/iyh-vsv/alt_ formats/cmcd-dcmc/pdf/caffeine_e. pdf. Accessed December 17, 2006. 31. Huxtable, R. J. Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol. Rev. 72:101-163, 1992. 32. Ivy, J. L. , D. L. Costill, W. J. Fink, and R. W. Lower. Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feedings on endurance performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1:6-11, 1979. 33. Jackman, M. , P. Wendling, D. Friars, and T. E. Graham. Metabolic catecholamine, and endurance responses to caffeine during intense exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 81:1658-1663, 1996. 34. Jacobs, I. , H. Pasternak, and D. G. Bell. Effects of ephedrine, caffeine, and their combination on muscular endurance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 35:987-994, 2003. 35. Kalmar, J. M. , and E. Cafarelli. Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function. J. Appl. Physiol. 87:801-808, 1999. 36. Karlic, H. , and A. Lohninger. Supplementation of L-carnitine in athletes: does it make sense? Nutrition. 0:709-715, 2004. 37. Kovacs, E. M. R. , J. H. C. H. Stegen, and F. Brouns. Effect of caffeinated drinks on substrate metabolism, caffeine excretion, and performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 85:709-715, 1998. 38. Kristiansen, M. , R. Levy-Milne, S. Barr, and A. Flint. Dietary supplement use by varsity athletes at a Canadian university. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 15:195-210. 39. Lindinger, M. I. , T. E. Graham, and L. L. Spriet. Caffeine attenuates the exercise-induced increase in plasma [K+] in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 74:1149-1155, 1993. 40. Lopes, J. M. , M. Aubier, J. Jardim, J. V. Aranda, and P. T. Macklem. Effect of caffeine on skeletal muscle function before and after fatigue. J. Appl. Physiol. 54:1303-1305, 1983. 41. MacIntosh, B. R. , and B. M. Wright. Caffeine ingestion and performance of a 1500 meter swim. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 20:168-177, 1995. 42. Maridakis, V. , P. J. O’Connor, G. A. Dudley, and K. McCully. Caffeine attenuates delayed-onset muscle pain and force loss following eccentric exercise. Pain. 8:237-243, 2007. 43. McLellan, T. M. , and D. G. Bell. The impact of prior coffee consumption on the subsequent ergogenic effect of anhydrous caffeine. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 14:698708, 2004. 44. Nieminen, M. L. , L. Tuomisto, E. Solatunturi, L. Eriksson, and M. K. Paasonen. Taurine in the osmoregulation of the Brattleboro diabetes insipidus rat. Life Sci. 42:2137-2143, 1988. 45. Norager, C. B. , M. B. Jensent, A. Weimann, and M. R. Madsen. Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75-year old citizens. a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Clin. Endocrinol. 65:223-228, 2006. 46. Pasman W. J. , M. A. van Baak, A. E. Jeukendrup, and A. de Haan. The effect of different dosages of caffeine on endurance performance time. Int. J. Sports Med. 16:225-230, 1995. 47. Paterson, D. H. Respiratory and cardiovascular aspects of intermittent exercise with regard to ice hockey. Can. J. Appl. Sport Sci. 4:22-28, 1979. 444 Forbes? et? al. 48. Powers, S. K. , R. J. Byrd, R. Tulley, and T. Callender. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and performance during graded exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 50:301-307, 1983. 49. Redmond, H. P. , P. P. Stapleton, P. Neary, and D. Bouchier-Hayes. Immuno-nutrition: the role of taurine. Nutrition. 14:599-604, 1998. 50. Tarnopolsky, M. A. , S. A. Atkinson, J. D. MacDougall, D. G. Sale, and J. R. Sutton. Physiological responses to caffeine during endurance running in habitual caffeine users. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 21:418-424, 1989. 51. Tarnopolsky, M. A. , and C. Cupido. Caffeine potentiates low frequency skeletal muscle force in habitual and nonhabitual caffeine consumers. J. Appl. Physiol. 89:1719-1724, 2000. 52. Thomas, S. , I. Reading, and R. J. Shephard. Revision of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). Can. J. Sport Sci. 17:338-345, 1992. 53. Trappe, S. W. , D. L. Costill, B. Goodpaster, M. D. Vukovich, and W. J. Fink. The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on performance during interval swimming. Int. J. Sports Med. 15:181-185, 1994. 54. Williams, J. H. Caffeine, neuromuscular function and high-intensity exercise performance. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness. 31:481-489, 1991. 55. Woolf, K. , and M. M. Manore. B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements? Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 16:453-484, 2006. 56. Zhang, M. , I. Izumi, S. Kagamimori, et al. Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men. Amino Acids. 26:203-207, 2004. How to cite Effect of Red Bull Energy Drink, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Dirt Bikes free essay sample

Data We have provided a spreadsheet with three worksheets containing Dirt Bikes financial data for you to review [see Dirt Bikes Financial Data. xls]: Income statement and summary balance sheet data from 2007-2009 Annual sales of each Dirt Bikes model between 2005 and 2009 Total domestic vs. international motorcycle sales between 2005 and 2009 The income statement and balance sheet are the primary financial statements used by management to determine how well a firm is performing. The income statement, also called an operating statement or profit and loss statement, shows the income and expenses of a firm over a period of time, such as a year, a quarter, or a month. The gross profit represents the difference between the firm’s revenue (or sales) and the cost of goods sold. The gross margin is calculated by dividing gross profit by revenues (or sales). Net profit (or loss) is calculated by subtracting all other expenses, including operating expenses and income taxes from gross profit. We will write a custom essay sample on Dirt Bikes or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Operating expenses are all business costs (such as expenditures for sales and marketing, general and administrative expenditures, and depreciation) other than those included in the cost of goods sold. Net margins are calculated by dividing net profit (or loss) by revenues (or sales). A balance sheet provides a snapshot of a company’s financial assets and liabilities on a given date, usually the close of an accounting period. It lists what material and intangible assets the business owns and what money the business owes either to its creditors (liabilities) or to its owners (shareholders’ equity, also known as net worth). We have included here are only the most important pieces of balance sheet data for you to review. At any given time a business’s assets equals the sum of its liabilities plus its net worth. Current assets include cash, securities, accounts receivable, or other investments that are likely to be converted into cash within one year. Current liabilities are debts that are due within one year. Long-term debt consists of liabilities that are not due until after a year or more. If too much debt has been used to finance the firm’s operations, problems may arise in meeting future interest payments and repaying outstanding loans. By examining a series of financial statements one can identify and analyze trends in the financial strength of a business. When examining Dirt Bikes’ income statement and balance sheet data, pay special attention to the company’s three-year trends in revenue (sales), costs of goods sold, gross margins, operating expenses, and net income (or loss). Pay attention to whether the company’s short and long-term liabilities are growing and whether they exceed assets. If a company has more current assets than current liabilities, it is a sign that it probably has enough working capital to fund investments in new equipment or information systems. The two other spreadsheets present motorcycle shipment data between 2005 and 2009, which can be used to gauge motorcycle sales. When examining these spreadsheets, pay attention to the trends in sales. This includes the sales trends for each product Dirt Bikes sells, overall sales trends, and the proportion of international to domestic sales.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Nursery Business Plan

Market Strategy Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center’s program is currently being publicized to the community at two levels, i.e. the state level and the local level. Prince Mohammed University in Khobar has a link in its website that has information with regard to Little Angels Nursery Daycare program (Pride, Hughes, Kapoor, 2012). This information can be accessed by interested parents who want to bring their children on board.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Nursery Business Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The information on the link includes the list of services or programs that are offered by the daycare; in addition, a list of frequently asked questions is also included in the information. Apart from the link on Prince Mohammed University’s website, Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center also uses brochures or flyers as a way of advertising itself to the interested parents. Marketing of the nursery daycare aims at creating more awareness to the parents through advertisement and campaigns. In addition, the marketing strategies seek to increase the number of admitted children into the program. Nonetheless, marketing is very beneficial as it seeks to inform the target audience about the salient features of the nursery daycare programs and the competitive advantages; this will help in erasing all the doubts that the parents may be having with regard to the programs and services offered. The entire staff members of Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center have been efficiently trained and they know their roles with regard to the marketing strategies of the organization (Madura, 2007). Children from poor families are often signed up through family support staff. The family support staff members have a role to play in terms of advertising the nursery daycare’s programs and service to the poor parents and advising them on their qualifications and the procedure for ap plying for the child care programs. Management Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center will adopt a ‘Management by Objectives’ approach, whereby it will develop committed employees who are aware of their roles and services and also the mission and vision of the institution. Therefore, the employees will be motivated to work hard with the aim of achieving the mission and objective of the institution.Advertising Looking for term paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This management approach sets out SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time bound) objectives to the employees and it will also improve on communication and coordination; thus, feedbacks will be received constantly. The management style will also provide for constant participation of all the employees as they will be required to take part in setting the targets or goals to be achieved by the institution; thus, a person will not feel left out or overlooked. The members of staff will be so attached to the values of the institution which will make them have a strong organizational culture. This is because the values are so precise and they will have no difficulty in embracing them. The management will be strong and efficient and will provide for quality leadership. No employee will be more equal than the other, thus they will all be treated equally and fairly with much respect. The directors will all be available and reachable. The employees will be committed to their work and they will strive to maintain the values and the morals of the institution at all times. This management style will be more beneficial to the parents who intend to have more than one child on the program. This is due to the fact that, when the parents have a busy schedule, they will always resort to nursery daycare centers that offer services for extended hour. With this kind of management style in place, the parents will not fe ar to leave their children for long hours in the nursery daycare. Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center intends to recruit qualified and able teachers to spearhead the programs in the facility. With this regard, the amount of remunerations that the teachers will be offered will match the ones offered to the public school teachers. In addition, the teachers will be remunerated as per their levels of teaching experience and as per their contributions and effectiveness to the nursery daycare; therefore, their salaries are not expected to be the same all through. An attractive salary package is aimed at attracting the best teaching talent in the field and this too has a positive effect on the nursery daycare’s success.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Nursery Business Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Financial Sources and Uses Presently, there are two main flows of funds into Little Angels Nursery Day care Center. The first flow of funds is through the State Aid program. The other flow of funds is through Financial Grants. The State Aid program funds a major part of the institution, about 60 percent. The other remaining bit is funded through Financial Grants. The State Aid funds are used to meet the cost of paying the teachers their salaries and other benefits and the cost of building or renovating the classrooms. The Financial Grant funds are used to meet the cost of transporting materials into the nursery daycare, the cost of maintaining the premises and the costs of paying overtime work to the teachers. There are various conditions for a nursery daycare center to qualify to access the Financial Grant programs. One of the conditions is for the nursery daycare center to demonstrate that their projects are viable and committed toward the well being of the institution. There are a team of auditors and supervisors in place to make sure that the funds are efficiently used and are no t misappropriated in any way. The other remaining source of finance for Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center is through fees paid by the parents for the upkeep of their children within the institution. These funds are actually used for purchasing books and other learning materials for the children. In addition, the funds are also used to buy sporting equipments to be used for the physical development of the children. Academic and social trips are also financed by the funds collected from the fees paid by the parents. A summary of the financial sources is in the table below. Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center, Full-day Nursery and Daycare Center Advertising Looking for term paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Budgeting Process A budget process entails how an organization constructs and endorses a budget. Budgeting is a long process as it entails distributing expenditure equivalently among the various departments or sectors of the organization. In budgeting, capital is apportioned in a manner that enables the organization to achieve its financial objectives. In Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center, budgeting is set up to cover all the financial shortcomings and also prepare the organization to meet the future investment plans in a focused manner. The practicability of budgeting is in line with the long term strategic plans of the organization. When budgeting is done in an appropriate manner, all the financial goals of the company will be captured. The budget guides the organization to accomplish investment plans since only relevant items are included in the budget. Just like many organizations, the budgeting process in Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center is initiated from the Finance Dep artment. The Finance Department designs spreadsheets that aim at guiding the departmental head to put in order a good quality budget. After the Finance Department has designed the spreadsheets, the Daycare Administrator sits in a meeting with the various departmental heads, who submit their budget estimates for the next financial year. After that, the Finance Department works out the cost estimates of the various proposals submitted by the departmental heads as they prepare the budget. After the budget is completed, it is forwarded to the hospital administrator and other top managers for evaluation and endorsement. The last stage of the budget process is the approval of the budget. The Daycare Administrator agrees to the request by the Finance Department concerning the list of expenditures proposed. Budgeting plays a very vital role in the organization as it sets out economic objectives to steer the organization forward. The budget has to be endorsed by the administration before bei ng implemented. Different departments have different needs; therefore, the budget is not the same for each department. A proper budgeting ensures that the organization’s goals and policies are preserved and maintained. This is beneficial to the organization since the nursery daycare is viewed by the society as to be playing a major role in safeguarding the welfare of the little children in the society. Management of the funds Little Angels Nursery Daycare will come up with a funds management process that will scrutinize the budgets and proposals and ensure that there is proper allocation of the funds to the various sectors of the institution. It will be required that before any funds are disbursed, a full application form is filled and it will have to be approved by the relevant committee in charge. Only urgent and relevant budget proposals will be approved by the committee. The committee will ensure that the funds are properly allocated and managed so as to avoid any misappr opriations. A proper audit team will be in place to counter check the management of the funds. The auditors will have to make a report at the end of every financial year of the institution so as the measure the progress of the nursery daycare by comparing it to the previous year’s results. When the funds are properly managed, the daycare will be in a good position to attract more Financial Grants and State Aid programs. Monitoring and Accountability Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center is expected to be strict when it comes to handling of its financial resources. The funds flow directly into the institution and all financial decisions are made by the management of the institution. It is, therefore, imperative upon the management to come up with a proper monitoring and evaluation program to oversee the management of the funds and to ensure that the audit team performs an efficient and satisfactory work. A proper monitoring and evaluation program will keep the institution on it s toes and will further boost the confidence and the faith that the parents have with regard to the daycare. When this happens, many more children will be admitted to Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center and in the process the flow of funds into the institution will rapidly rise. The monitoring and evaluation process will ensure that the financial management of the institution is in compliance with the stipulated regulation framework. With this regard, the monitoring and evaluation team will conduct longitudinal surveys in order to assess the social responses of the children in the Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center. The outcome of the survey will put the institution in a good position to make recommendations as per the needs of the children. In addition, the outcome of the survey will reveal the shortcomings of the institution and further help with the planning process so that the institution can move forward and maintain a positive track record. Conclusion Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center aims at becoming the leading nursery daycare center in the region. As well stipulated in the mission statement which fosters a full-time safe and fun environment for the children of the university staff and children of the students; the staff members are very qualified to provide a favorable environment for the development of the children. The goals of the institution are in line with the mission and they aim at promoting the children’s social and physical development through a combination of indoor and outdoor activities. The daycare will come up with an efficient marketing strategy and an elaborate management system in order to oversee the development of the organization. The budgeting process is done internally and efficiently. Budgeting plays a crucial role toward the financial planning of the institution, thus, a well planned monitoring and evaluation team will ensure that all protocols are given maximum consideration. References Madura, J. (2007). Introdu ction to business. Mason, OH: Thompson/South-Western. Pride, W. M., Hughes, R. J., Kapoor, J. R. (2012). Business. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning. This term paper on Nursery Business Plan was written and submitted by user Bobby B. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here. Nursery Business Plan Executive Summary The business plan is on the baby care service industry targeting the children of the PMU University in Khobar. It is a partnership business with five members were capital will be individually contributed. It will provide the baby care services to babies of the age 0-5 years.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Nursery Business Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The mission of the Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center is to provide full-time services and fun environment to the children of the university staff and students. This will be achieved through putting clients’ needs first and offer of quality services. The services provided will be distributed along the different age groups (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, and 3-5 years). General description The business enterprise will be in the baby care industry where baby care services will be provided to the children of age zero to five years. The business enterprise will be named The Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center. It will target the children of the staff at PMU University in Khobar and those of the students who are mostly foreigners. The business enterprise is a Partnership Company that will be co-owned by five members. The strength of the company is that it will have skilled employees and administration that would ensure that all the goals and objectives are achieved. It will be funded through partnership contribution who will also act as the administrators. Mission statement The focus of the little angles nursery daycare center is to provide a full-time safe and fun environment for the children of our university staff and students. Moreover, our qualified faculty will provide a respectful treatment and a rich learning process which promotes each child’s social, physical and emotional development. Company goals The goal of the Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center is to create a safe environment in a friendly homelike atmosphere for children of ages between 0-5 years. Objectives The objectives of Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center are:Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To determine the value of play in children’s learning and development processes. To have a combined environment by sharing information and building a relationship with the parents. To promote children’s social and physical development through the combination of indoor and outdoor activities To build self-esteem and confidence personalities among the children Keys to Success Put the needs of our clients first as we belief in customer satisfaction through quality services. Company Profile The Company Ownership is a co-owned enterprise with five members. After seeing the need to take care of young children, the members have partnered forming The Little Angles Nursery Daycare Center. The reason why partners hip was chosen was based on the issue of raising adequate startup capital. Each member will be a general partner meaning they shall be active on day to day activities (Pride, Hughes, Kapoor, 2012). They also wanted to take advantage of the different members’ educational backgrounds, skills, and experiences for effective running of the institution. Advantages of a business partnership are that is allows members to share responsibilities based on their skills, and raise adequate capital. In addition, it offers varied and diverse decisions which are essential for business running (Madura, 2007). In case of any losses, the partners usually share them equally (Madura, 2007). Start-up Plan Each of the members will contribute equal amount of capital for leasing the housing facilities and running the business enterprise. Depending on their different skills and educational backgrounds, each member will undertake their field of interest and specialty to encourage division of labor and specialization. Benefits, salaries, bonuses, and profits will be equally shared among the partners. The company will hire specialized baby care takers whom are mostly mothers. Willing employees of The Little Angles Nursery Daycare Center will undergo health screening as well as educational training catered by the business. This is aimed at increasing the competitive advantage of the company by offering quality service. Company Locations and Facilities The Little Angles Nursery Daycare Center will be located at the PMU University in Khobar. The business enterprise targets children of the university staff as well as those of the university students. The children being taken care of are of the age zero to five years old. The Little Angels Nursery Daycare Center will provide educational and physical facilities to help promote each child’s social, physical and emotional development. Different rooms will be available to cater for the different children age groups at different age groups. Products and Services Services and Service Description The Little Angles Nursery Daycare Center located at the PMU University in Khobar will provide recreational, physical and educational facilities to the children of ages between 0-5. These are the children of the University staffs who reside within the premises of the educational facility as well as those of the students. The services provided in the little angles and nursery and daycare will depend on the age limits as children of different ages require different services as advised in BTEC First Children’s Care, Learning and Development.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Nursery Business Plan specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 0-1 years This is a tender age group that will be taken care of by the Little Angels’ Nursery Daycare Center. Children at this stage require a lot of attention and care (Understanding children’s develop ment, n. d., Para. 4). There rooms will be homely with soft furnishing, duvets, cushions and nursery furniture like baby walkers. The rooms will be well colored with scattered toys around the children’s bedrooms and others hanging on the ceiling. The employed staff will be responsible for holding and talking to the babies. To ensure that the children get the best services, the ratio of baby care staff will be one to three. The work system will ensure that each child familiarizes with their ‘nanny’. The staff members of the Little Angels’ Nursery Daycare Center are well trained and most of them will be mothers themselves. Since the nursery and baby care is located within the learning institution, parents will be allowed to check on their babies anytime for assurance purposes. They will also be allowed to call in anytime to check up on their children welfare. Other services offered include settling in period which is of about one to two weeks that would allo w the baby to familiarize with the new environmental condition and our staff. At the end of the day when the parents will be collecting their babies, they will be offered with a daily operational sheet showing the following: The activities the child has enjoyed and done on that particular day. The number of nappies or pampers used in that day. The condition of the baby physically and social wise. The food calories taken and the liters of water taken. When the child reaches one year will be moved to the adjacent rooms that hosts toddlers of ages of between 12 to 24 months. However, the moving up will depend on the child’s development abilities like mobility. It will also depend on the child’s needs as well as their health and socializing abilities. The child will be familiarized with the rooms before being moved. 1-2 years The children under this age bracket require a lot of care and attention as they are on development stages (Understanding children’s develo pment, n. d., Para. 5). The toddlers will be provided with a range of collections for investigative, exploratory, and learning purposes. The place will be stimulating as the child will be developing emotionally and physically. The toddlers will be taught and encouraged on how to paint, draw, solve some jigsaws, and other engaging activities that will stimulate their brain development. This will definitely promote the personal development, social skills, and promote independent learning. The toddlers in Little Angels’ Nursery Daycare Center will be allowed to rest for two hours and can sleep on available mats.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The developmental needs of the child will be taken into considerations by the use of both outdoor and indoor physical and learning environment. The ratio still remains one to three as the needs of the children are almost the same as those of zero to one year. The toddlers socializing skills will be developed as they will be encouraged to share and play with other toddlers. They will be grouped in teams and encouraged to share their toys and other materials. At the end of the day the toddlers will be issued with a worksheet with the following: The progress of the child socially, emotionally and physically. Food calories taken and amount of water. The child’s emotional and learning abilities. Before the child is moved to a pre-school, the parent shall be engaged in a discussion where advice shall be availed to the parents. 2-3 Years The children at this age group will be on a preparatory transition to join the other older groups. With their ability to move around, talk, and understand, the ratio of staff member to child be increased from one to three to one to four. They will be taught how to write, draw, and paint. They will be encouraged to socialize so as to develop socialization skills as well as relationships with their staff and other children. They will also be encouraged to mingle with other experienced big groups. They children will be prepared for transition period from a toddler to a more experienced child. More physical activities and exercises will be encouraged to develop the child physical and mental capabilities. Parents will be encouraged to call anytime during the day to check up on their children for reassurance purposes. The children rooms will be filled sand, water, music, and a home corner. This would encourage them play with real environmental facilities as they familiarize themselves with the surroundings. At the end of the day the parents will be provided with a chart with following; Socializing abilities and any antisocial b ehavior that the parent would like to know. The physical, emotional, and social developments of the child. Food calories taken and health progress of the child. 3-5 Years This age group consists of children who can talk, walk, play, and understand (Understanding children’s development, n. d., Para. 6). The ration of this age group is usually one staff to eight children. The staff have been trained in EYDCP (early year’s development childcare partnership) and equipped with any other required skills. The rooms will be well decorated for the children with more learning materials rather than mere drawings. This is to stimulate their mental capabilities, reason and understanding. The children will be provided with wide range of activities and resources and they include; Water and sand Music Science area Small World toys Book corner Construction area Art Craft area Outdoor play Math’s area Writing table Role Play area Other services provided are Child preparati on to the challenges faced in an infant school Little Angels’ Nursery Daycare Center will offer a safe, play tested, and happy environment for the child where they will learn to gain independence and socialize beyond the family setting. Prepare the child for the first stage in elementary school. Identify the child special problems if any through continual observations and assessments. This would allow the parents know the problems and rectify them before the child joins elementary schools. Children will be trained for daily routines and responsibilities. The children will be encouraged to be independent, develop communication and social skills and the act of sharing. Parents will be provided with necessary information that pertains to the elementary schools for first graders around the University. Competitive Comparison Since the business is the first of its kind around the institution and town, no competition is expected in the short term. However, competition may be experi enced in the next five years if other nursery and baby care institution mushroom. For the mean time, the company will be experiencing a monopoly as well as operate as price takers. Future facilities and services The enterprise will expand its facilities and increase its employees as the number of clients children increase. This will ensure that every child necessity is taken care of. It will also put on more play facilities like swings, sliding rails, and bouncing castles among others. Industry Analysis The baby care industry is a new concept in Saudi Arabia with little players as most of the mothers are housewives. This means no competitors around the university and its environs thus the need to establish one around the area. The other aspect of the industry is that it’s a growing one that will be faced with emergent competitors in the near future. However, the business enterprise with create a brand name and put into place strategic plans that would play as competitive adva ntage in the near future. Reference List Madura, J. (2007).  Introduction to business. Mason, OH: Thompson/South-Western Pride, W. M., Hughes, R. J., Kapoor, J. R. (2012).Business. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning. Understanding children’s development (.n. d.). BTEC First Children’s Care, Learning and Development. Web. This term paper on Nursery Business Plan was written and submitted by user Alia Ray to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Whats Actually Tested on the ACT Math Section Concepts, Subjects, and Skills

What's Actually Tested on the ACT Math Section Concepts, Subjects, and Skills SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you preparing for the ACT? You’re probably wondering what you need to know to be ready for the math section. For many students, the math section can be the most stressful part of the ACT because of its breadth and time difficulty. In this post, we'll break down exactly what will appear on the ACT math test, with sample questions. We'll also give you the resources you need to start studying so you can get the best score possible. What's the Format of the ACT Math Section? The ACT math section is 60 minutes long, with 60 questions total – so you’ll have just one minute to complete each question. You’ll definitely have to work quickly if you want to answer each one! Every question is multiple choice, and there is no penalty for guessing. Pacing and problem solving are the big challenges on the ACT math section. Pacing is tricky because you have to answer questions as quickly as possible without losing accuracy. In addition, you have to be able to quickly identify ways to solve problems. This is why studying specifically for ACT math is so important, since it requires you to work faster and more strategically than you have to in math class. You need to be able to problem solve, or use what the ACT calls using reasoning abilities. In addition, the math questions are not ordered by topic, so you need to be prepared to quickly switch between topics like statistics, algebra, and geometry. Test Content and Requirements The ACT tests math skills that most students know by the beginning of grade 12 – which in practice means nothing beyond Algebra II. If you’re an advanced student, ACT math content will be very straightforward. The content breakdown for ACT math is: Pre-Algebra (20-25%) Elementary Algebra (15-20%) Intermediate Algebra (15-20%) Coordinate Geometry (15-20%) Plane Geometry (20-25%) Trigonometry (5-10%) We’ll explore those sections in-depth with example problems and explain how you get scores for each section. You can use a calculator – but it has to be a permitted one. However, you’re not required to use a calculator, meaning all problems on the ACT can be solved without one. Be careful not to rely too much on your calculator if you use one, as it can actually slow you down. (For an expert discussion on the best calculators for standardized tests, see our post.) Unlike the SAT, you’re not given a reference sheet, so you have to know basic math formulas (y = mx + b, the area formula, the quadratic formula, etc) but nothing too complex. What Are ACT Math Section Subscores? Your score is based on how many total points out of 60 possible you earn. That raw score is converted to a section score between 1 and 36 (for more on that process, see our ACT scoring guide). You also receive three subscores based on the six content areas: pre-algebra and elementary algebra, intermediate algebra and coordinate geometry, and plane geometry and trigonometry. The subscores basically give more detailed information about your performance, but are generally not looked at too closely by colleges (your overall math section score and ACT composite are most important). However, you can use the subscore areas to focus your studying by math topic. We will explore the three math subsections and show some example questions for each. You might find that you are more than prepared for one area but need to focus your practice on one topic, like trigonometry or coordinate geometry. While we will give a detailed overview of what you can expect to see on the math section, we also recommend doing full practice tests so you can really get a sense of what the ACT math section is really like. #1: Pre-Algebra/Elementary Algebra Pre-Algebra (20-25%) Basic operations using whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and integers Place value Square roots and approximations The concept of exponents Scientific notation Factors Ratio, proportion, and percent Linear equations in one variable Absolute value and ordering numbers by value Elementary counting techniques and simple probability Data collection, representation, and interpretation Understanding simple descriptive statistics A basic operations problem. A probability problem based on a real-world situation. Elementary Algebra (15-20%) Properties of exponents and square roots Evaluation of algebraic expressions through substitution Using variables to express functional relationships Understanding algebraic operations The solution of quadratic equations by factoring Two elementary algebra problems. The first uses variables to express a real-world relationship. The second tests evaluation of algebraic expressions through substitution. #2: Intermediate Algebra/Coordinate Geometry Intermediate Algebra (15-20%) The quadratic formula Rational and radical expressions Absolute value equations and inequalities Sequences and patterns Systems of equations Quadratic inequalities Functions and modeling Matrices Roots of polynomials Complex numbers Coordinate Geometry (15-20%) Graphing and the relations between equations and graphs, including points, lines, polynomials, circles, and other curves Graphing inequalities Slope Parallel and perpendicular lines Distance Midpoints Conics #3: Plane Geometry/Trigonometry Plane Geometry (20-25%) Properties and relations of plane figures, including angles and relations among perpendicular and parallel lines Properties of circles, triangles, rectangles, parallelograms, and trapezoids Transformations The concept of proof and proof techniques Volume Applications of geometry to three dimensions Trigonometry (5-10%) Trigonometric relations in right triangles Values and properties of trigonometric functions Graphing trigonometric functions Modeling using trigonometric functions Use of trigonometric identities Solving trigonometric equations Example questions via Preparing for the ACT. Where Can You Find ACT Math Practice Materials? Now that you know what's on ACT Math, your next step is to start practicing! The most important way to prepare for the ACT is to take practice tests. We havelinks to free, official online practice teststo get you started. If you need to especially practice math, you can just take the Math sections, but for everyone we recommend you take at least a few full-length practice ACTs so you can get an idea of how well you'd do on the entire exam and get experience taking such a long test. A prep book can also be a major help while you're studying ACT Math, especially if there are some concepts you're still struggling to understand. However, it's important to get a high-quality prep book.See our guide tothe best ACT prep books on the market. What’s Next? Not sure what your target ACT score should be? Learn what a good, bad, or excellent score looks like, and the type of score you should aim for based on your dream colleges. Want some help studying? Consider using our PrepScholar program. We take the hard part out of studying so you can focus on practicing for the test, using high-quality practice questions, and improving your weak areas. Are you not a big fan of geometry? See if it’s possible to take the ACT without geometry. Looking for a perfect ACT math score? Get tips from our 36 full-scorer. Want to improve your ACT score by 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by ACT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Friday, November 22, 2019

2009 Chrysler Fiat Strategic Alliance

The company had no choice but to look for a partner. During this process, Chrysler explored the possibility of a tie-up with GM, Ford, Volkswagen, Tata Motors, Nissan and Fiat. Eventually Chrysler decided on creating a strategic alliance where Fiat agreed on taking a 20 percent stake in Chrysler. In the next five years, the tie-up may increase Fiat’s ownership of Chrysler to 35 percent. Both companies show compatibility in their product portfolios, global operations, and technology sharing areas. Case ObjectivesThe primary objective of this case is to analyze and discuss Chrysler’s 2009 strategic alliance with Fiat and its current and future prospects. Issues that are at the helm of this tie-up are technology sharing, global integration, quality control, and reorganization of brand portfolios. Students need to look at the intricacies of strategic alliances between two or more companies as well. As of May 2009, Chrysler is going through its Chapter 11 and corporate restructuring in the U. S. The company continues to shrink in terms of its manufacturing and global operations.Suggested Teaching Approach and Student Assignments Since the case is timely, it is recommended that class discussions should be based on the companies’ histories and their evolutionary growth (see Tables 2 and 3). Also important are topics such as strategic alliances, auto industry’s technology platforms, and brand portfolios. The questions included in the case for class discussion will require Web-based and library research on the part of students. It is recommended that the instructors provide a supplementary list of references on the auto industry (see: WardsAuto. om, JDPower. com, Automotive News, Google Search, Business Source Complete, Hoovers. com, Reuters. com, Value Line, Standard Poor’s Industry Surveys, etc. ). This will help students to be fully prepared for the case. Finally, students should be encouraged to visit Chrysler, Fiat, and other auto manufacturers’ Web sites before discussing this case in the classroom. Discussion Questions Answers Question 1. What are your views of the 2009 Chrysler-Fiat strategic alliance and its future prospects in the auto industry? Question 2. Analyze and evaluate Chrysler and Fiat’s strengths and weaknesses before and after their 2009 strategic alliance. Question 3. Compare and contrast Chrysler and Fiat with five other global auto manufacturers (GM, Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen and Daimler) in the areas of global operations and manufacturing issues. Question 4. Analyze Chrysler and Fiat’s brand portfolios in the world auto industry. How do you see both companies revamping and overhauling their brands in the short- (1-2 years) and long-terms (5-6 years). Question 5. What did you learn from the Chrysler-Fiat Strategic Alliance regarding managing multinationals in the changing global business? Case Analysis The Chrysler-Fiat strategic alliance will provide a meaningful opportunity to both companies regarding dealing with survival and expanding their markets in Europe and North America. As of 2009, it is evident that the companies are off to a good start. Both firms have marketable brands in their market segments but lack a collective effort. The case is a good example in the area of cross-border alliances that take place between two or more companies.Since 2008, Fiat has actively sought a partner in North America because of the attraction of the market. This is also attributed to the auto industry’s consolidation, restructuring, and cost-cutting activities. Chrysler and Fiat ended up seeking an alliance because of their compatibility, product portfolios, and markets. In Chrysler’s case, the main motive was to seek a partner who could help strengthen its financial problem regarding new technologies, markets, and quality standards.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

None Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 3

None - Essay Example The family is met with a severe accident but all of them are saved to be killed at the hands of the serial killer, Misfit. This story is one of those in which complex and comprehensive themes are presented in clear and plain language. This is a simple story like a picture which is able to speak a thousand words. The major themes in this story include faith, morality and self conscience along with other religious connotations. Another major theme revolves around trust, mistrust and faith which the author has portrayed specifically during the first stop of the family at The Tower with their owners. The owner, Red Sammy Butts and his wife get engaged in a conversation with the family. During this conversation, the owner and the grandmother talk about the reality of the world and the moral ethics and codes which were ignored by people in everyday life. They talk about how no one in the world could be trusted anymore. Red Sammy Butts shares his experiences of mistrust about how he helped some people and gave them something on credit and never saw them again. This conversation leads to the ugly truth of the world, the presence of good and evil and the ultimate reality that no one can be trusted. The title of the story itself portrays the theme of the story that good men are hard to find this world, those who live, not for themselves, but for others. The author has tried to describe the shortcomings of the traditional meaning of good and bad. This traditional concept states that people can either be good or bad but in this story, O`Connor has tried to depict that both good and bad can exist within a single person. The author enforces that a person can find both good and bad but it just depends on the way he searches for it. Similarly, the initial story is portrayed in such a way that the reader would think that the story shows a good family and a bad convict, misfit. However, this is a false impression which is corrected at the end of the story. After the accident, th e grandmother and the whole family meets misfit and his gang. The grandmother`s judgmental nature results in a serious conflict between her and misfit which results in the death of the entire family. The grandmother thought that the only thing that will save her from the killer was her supposed good deeds and good nature. However, the story initially shows that the grandmother is a self serving person and she is clearly a racist and this is shown by her comment about the street children as she says, â€Å"Little niggers in the country don't have things like we do† (A Good Man is hard to find, Web). This clearly shows that the grandmother was a racist and during her encounter with Misfit, she thought she was good and her goodness will save her from the convict. She even called Misfit and â€Å"alleged criminal† and tried to enforce her superior position which further worsened the conflict between them. However, Misfit had more power than the grandmother at that time and he decided to end her life. Faith is a person`s belief in something whether it be God, a religion or even a personal trait, for example. The Misfit did not have any such belief in any religion but he seems to have faith on himself. The grandmother even tries to bring in religion and Jesus to change Misfit`s mind. She tries to save herself by bringing in Jesus’

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Gender Stratification and Women in Developing Nations Essay

Gender Stratification and Women in Developing Nations - Essay Example The most intense riots broke out in the aftermath of president Habyalimana’s assassination, a mad Hutus tried to wipe off a complete Tutsi tribe. Not only women and young females were killed, raped and mutilated, the moderate males also faced mass killings establishing these killings as genocidal and gendercidal. Rwanda’s demographic disparity today is due to the killing of approximately 70% Tutsi males by the hands of radical Hutus, about which the socialist say that, it will continue to exist. An intense impact is a tilt in power towards females in all walks of life. This paper researches this very fact and will also investigate the effects of demographic disparity in the wake of the genocide Rwanda. Additionally, it will throw light on the role of women in Rwanda at present in its economical, social and political development, especially after the 1994 genocide in this African country. To realize the positive effect on empowered women in the present Rwandan setup; fac tors that played an important role in the 1994 massacre have to be understood. The Rwandan population composes of 85 % Hutu, 14 % Tutsi and 1% Twa tribe. The Twa are native of Rwanda and are different from the influential Hutu and Tutsi. three tribes are racially the same; Twa finding economics from forestry; although, deforestation and indifferent behavior from other tribes have isolated them. They were placed in the lowest cast in the Rwandan culture after the involvement of Hutu/Tutsi tribe and the German/Belgium colonization. By tradition, the main fields of Hutu and Tutsi were agriculture and cattle herding respectively. Both tribes have different features and share the same race. People of the Hutu tribe are bulky, short and with round faces whereas, people from Tutsi tribe are taller, with a lighter skin-tone and elliptical faces. The physical features of Tutsis match the old Ethiopians (History, 2010). Men have, historically, been powerful positions than women in Rwanda. Even though, the work has been shared by both in the agriculture sector; sharing the field clearing and daily work load between men and women respectively. The care of livestock was done by men, along with younger men in the society. Although women seek business in the market, males oversee the outside-home activities, leaving the women to handle house chores and the children upbringing. Marriage is the basic building block of society and the raising of children in Rwanda is considered to be a sign of affluence and influence. Therefo re, these women are under increasing pressure to marry and bear children. Women enjoy a fair share of socio-political power, which is an astonishing fact, keeping in mind the status of men and women in the Rwandan society. Saying all this, men still have the major share of power and public offices. The role of women in politics was minimized by the colonies (History, 2010) The Twa tribe was suppressed by both the Hutu and the Tutsis. Both these tribes did not permit intermarriages with the Twa people; even when allowing them among themselves. Because of these intermarriages the divide, that there was, between the Hutu and the Tutsis was eliminated to a minimum extent. Post colonization, social status was of more essence than that of the race itself (History, 2010). Even still, the Belgium and Germans under the colonial time-period functioned on the principle of ruling

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Ms Word Template Essay Example for Free

Ms Word Template Essay Place your logo and other components, as desired, into the header. Access the header by choosing View0Header and Footer from the menu. Generally, letterhead components consist of: * Logo * Street address (and mailing address, if different) * Website address * Email address * Telephone numbers and fax numbers Tip. Whenever possible, place your logo in-line with text. This helps to keep it in place, regardless of your layout. If you want your logo on the left and other components on the right, insert a two-column table. Tip. Generally, the first-page ofa letter does not have page numbering; but you may want to insert page numbering in the second-page footer. Tip. Note how the First Page Header says First Page Header right at the top. The Second Page Header will simply say Header. Tip. If you want to break up your address lines, you can use Insert0Symbol from Words menu and choose Wingdings as the font. There are all kinds of symbols from which you can choose. Above, we chose a symbol that looks like a simple bullet and colored it to match our logo color. These separations make your information easier to read. Step 2. Lay Out the Second Page Use the Show Next button on the Header and Footer toolbar to go to the Second Page Header. Place the components youd like to appear on second and subsequent pages of your correspondence into the header, such as a smaller version of your logo. Tip. Always place a paragraph return below the header, and a paragraph return above the footer. This keeps your document text from running into your header or footer components. Hit the Switch Between Header and Footer button on the Header

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Fuchs The American Way of Families: Is the Dream Really as Sweet as Apple Pie? :: essays research papers

Fuch's "The American Way of Families": Is the Dream Really as Sweet as Apple Pie? There were a few aspects of Lawrence H. Fuchs's essay The American Way of Families that I found extraordinarily interesting. He discusses influences of the modern American family that I found quite bizarre. Fuch also labels the key component to the American family as being none other than the gratification and pursuit of one's own self being. The most bizarre thing that overcame after reading this piece was that I found myself to be in total agreement with Fuch. That is what scared me. I realized that something that is supposed to be so stable in one's own life is really as "cut and dry" as we would like to believe. In essence, the main premise of human existence is satisfying yourself; at every level down to your basic foundation. We fight to make our own lives better at times even at the cost of others. This holds true in almost every arena of society that I tried to imagine after reading Fuch's essay. The only area of life that this struggle to satisfy yourself above and beyond all does not pertain in my opinion is religion: it is impossible to worship a being and try to overcome that being at the same time. Whether it involves fighting to be on top in the workplace or playing dirty to win a sporting event; almost all Americans have the fire burning within them that compels them to reach their goal or self satisfaction. In reading The American Way of Families, it occured to me that the struggle for pleasing one's own self existed even in the family. I don't think that after reading this piece that anyone can deny the existence of this urge in themselves. The urge exists in every form. No matter how picture perfect the family may be perceived, each member of that household wants to please themselves. In this quest to satisfy the appetite of happiness we often overlook the feelings of others. For instance, suppose that in a family that consisted of two college graduates in the role of parent, were faced with a child (that they brought up with all of their values and good intentions) that suddenly decides that he or she wants to move to Hollywood to become a rock star. It is almost by instinct that these parents will not approve of their child's decision. They do not want to lie about what their child is doing when their friends(who coincidentally all have children in college) ask, "Hey, what's

Monday, November 11, 2019

Discuss symbolism of death in `Don`t go gentle into the good night Essay

Dylan Thomas’ â€Å"Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night† is arguably the most famous villanelle compose in English. The poem’s subject is death; more specifically, the death of Thomas’ own father. Critical interpretations of the poem uniformly praise the poem’s imagery and symbolism, while popular appraisals of the poem center around the poem’s simplicity of language and its easily memorable, repeated lines. Though technically restrained and simple from the standpoint of language and imagery, the poem creates complex tensions and associations by the changing emphasis of the repeated words and imagery. By causing the reader to read the same, repeated words, each time with a different emphasis on meaning and imagery, Thomas attained a depth and profundity in his villanelle which seems to take the form itself to an entirely new plane of expression. Part of Thomas’ extraordinary capacity to express deep themes in the villanelle form is derived from his capable use of symbolism throughout the poem. Because the poem is about death, the symbolic associations in the poem which are tied to Thomas’ conception of death provide the primary emphasis for the poem’s expression and tension. Merely by reading the title, the reader is furnished with Thomas’ first and most dynamic symbolic association with death — â€Å"That Good Night. † Death is symbolized by a â€Å"good night† which indicates both departure and (through logical progression) the eventual rising of the sun, or resurrection. The tension of the poem is squarely evoked, also, in the title with the verb â€Å"go† providing another symbolic association with death, that of motion, travel, departure and movement. Both associations, â€Å"good night† and â€Å"go† imply activity beyond death. So the admonition â€Å"do not go† by implying stasis, begins the central tension of the poem, right from the title. Lines 2 and 3 extend the symbolism of death into a more complex series of associations, one which includes overtly negative evocation â€Å"Old age should burn and rave at close of day;/ Rage, rage against the dying of the light. † Here death is symbolized by the â€Å"close of day† and as a â€Å"dying† light. The admonition to â€Å"not go† becomes an impassioned verb â€Å"Rage, rage† and also â€Å"burn and rave. † Though not explicitly stated, the connotation is that life = day, so death = night. By all logic night and day follow one another, of course, so life beyond death is implied in Thomas’ symbolic associations with death. Further symbolic association with death is made by Thomas use of blindness and sight to differentiate between the dead and the living. â€Å"Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight/ Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,† and again there is good reason to read sight and blindness as interchangeable states, with Thomas so implying that life and death are the same. Meanwhile, with each refrain of the poem, he implores â€Å"Do not go gentle into that good night/ rage, rage against the dying of the light† and this is where the suspense and emotion of the poem are generated. The final symbolic association with death that is woven into the poem is Thomas’ use of the term â€Å"sad height. † These words imply heaven but also the grief of mortality in one unique phrase â€Å"And you, my father, there on the sad height,/Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray. † The suspense of the poem is broken, finally, by the refrain — which by now, the reader realizes cannot keep the subject of the poem (or anyone) from their appointed time with death. because the symbolic associations of the poem describe death as a both unknown but possibly beautiful and renewing state of being, the poem has sustained tension and ambiguity. Thomas crafted a poem which posited his subjective experience of his father’s death and his subjective associations with the consequences and realities of human mortality. The poem relies on symbolic associations of a universal and enduring nature to describe a complex interrelationship between life and death and the joy and despair of mortality. It is due to these associations that Thomas’ poem has become one of the most celebrated if not the most celebrated villanelle in English.